Why do children have elevated lymphocytes?
The role of lymphocytes in the body
Lymphocytes are human blood cells. They belong to a variety of white blood cells. The main function of these substances is the recognition of foreign unrelated proteins that enter the body from the environment or appear in adults and children due to illness. Due to this, antibodies are formed in the blood plasma that fight pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, they provide an immune response to the body.
There are three types of lymphocytes:
- T-lymphocytes accelerate or slow down the production of antibodies.
- B-lymphocytes are designed to recognize foreign proteins.
- NK lymphocytes destroy cancer cells, viruses, and bacteria.
The process of formation of these cells takes place in the bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils. In order to maintain health, it is necessary that lymphocytes are produced according to a norm that varies in adults and children, that is, depends on the age of the person.Increasing the level of such cells is called lymphocytosis.
The rate of lymphocyte content in a child
In a year, an infant should normally have 31% of these cells from the total number of leukocytes. In a child of kindergarten age between the ages of 3 and 4, you can see a picture when 50% of all white blood cells are lymphocytes. Then, as they grow older, their number becomes not so large. In an adult, neutrophils constitute the largest proportion of leukocytes.
The leukocyte formula is used to determine the composition of blood that meets the standards. It represents the percentage of the blood. You can also calculate the absolute number of cells per microliter. To do this, it is necessary to multiply the analysis data by the total number of leukocytes. Lymphocytosis is considered to exceed the total value of more than 5000 per microliter. In this case, doctors must identify the causes, make a diagnosis and prescribe treatment.
Test data is usually presented in a unit of measure 109 / L. Standards for kids of different ages are different:
|1 year||4 - 10.5 - 109 / l|
|4 years||2 - 8 - 109 / l|
|6 years and older||1.5 - 7 - 109 / l|
Knowing this information, you can easily evaluate the blood test of your child.
Reasons for the increase in lymphocytes
The reasons for the increase in lymphocytes can be very different and difficult to identify. In case of any deviations from the norm, consultation with pediatricians and hematologists is necessary.Very often, the baby's body reacts in this way when it is hit by viruses such as herpes, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis, chicken pox, measles, rubella. This reaction of the child's body is called "reactive lymphocytosis."Thus, the immune function of the body, which protects the baby from the development of the disease, is performed.
The causative agents of toxoplasmosis, syphilis, tuberculosis and many other diseases also cause lymphocytosis response. Sometimes this reaction is accompanied by the action of drugs, injuries, autoimmune diseases, endocrine system disorders. After the transfer of the acute period of the disease, the lymphocyte level over time is restored to normal. This requires 2 to 4 months.
This reaction is typical for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other types of cancer. If there is the slightest suspicion of such a violation in the body, the pediatrician should urgently refer the patient for consultation to the oncohematologist.
Parents do not need to think that the causes of deviations of blood from the norm lie in serious diseases. Most often, this is how the body reacts to the transferred stresses, pressures, and diseases. Sometimes it’s just an immune response that keeps your baby healthy. Before you make an appointment with a lot of specialists, it is better to just watch the baby. If he is active, eats well, is not naughty, does not complain of pain in the body, in other words, leads a normal life, it means that one should not worry about the condition of the child.
The reasons for the increase in lymphocytes can be varied - from a cold to severe cancer. Modern methods of laboratory studies can accurately determine their level in the blood of a child to determine the exact diagnosis and assign the correct treatment regimen.