What is conscience: in your own words. Meaning and interpretation of the word
The concept of "conscience" appeared in ancient timestimes, and many philosophers have tried to define it. Someone said that this is a feeling that makes a person weak, and someone, on the contrary, argued that this is one of the strongest qualities of a good person. It was especially difficult to talk about what conscience is, in your own words to those who once had no such feelings. Let's try to figure out what the word means.
Moral and ethical standards
Most sources claim that conscience -it is the need to adhere to the moral and ethical norms that have been formed in the environment where the person grew up. If, for some reason, it does not work to fulfill certain principles, then the individual experiences a feeling of guilt. What is conscience, in their words describe and employees in the religious community - the rabbis. They believe that this is the inner voice of every person who does not give up the right path and protects from committing sin.
How does the feeling arise?
When people talk about a concept orevent, they try to understand its essence, they necessarily turn to the sources. In this case, it is also very important to know how and when a sense of conscience first appears. In modern science there are two absolutely opposite theories, but each of them is very interesting and relevant. Adherents of the first believe that the conscience of man is a feeling that has a natural character. Others are confident that it has been inoculated since early childhood.
Both theories have the right to life, because, forIn order for this feeling to form, it is necessary to have a causal relationship. For example, when in infancy selfish deeds that cause trouble are blamed, and altruistic ones that bring benefits are approved, the child develops a cause-and-effect relationship.
Over time, censure and approval occurs in theman in itself. So, now in adult life, selfish actions are no longer censured by parents, but by an inner voice. Due to the fact that such associations arise from infancy and are firmly rooted in the human brain, it seems that this is an inborn quality. But, again, since this feeling is formed in the environment where a person grew up, his "concept of conscience" can differ significantly from the opinion of others on this.
Let's try to explain what the conscience is, itsin a fairly simple example. There are two families. In one, selfishness is not considered a negative quality, but is called only "love of oneself." Censure in this family occurs when the child himself is in some way infringing, parents think that he does not like himself at all. Here the child is "tormented by conscience", for example, because instead of buying candy, he gives this money to the poor. The other family is the complete opposite: exactly the same act is not condemned, but approved.
And the one and the other child one way or anotherthere is a sense of "conscience", but it is directed in different directions. It should be understood that the generally accepted moral concepts of conscience will nevertheless be on the side of the child from the second family.
Altruism and selfishness
Despite the fact that the environment in which it growsman, has a very great influence on him, not always certain qualities arise from her. It happens that the principles by which the family lives, do not coincide with the essence of their child. An altruist can grow up in an absolutely immoral family, so he negatively views their way of life and wants to be different at all costs. He is ashamed of the actions that his parents are committing, and if he does this himself, his conscience torments him. Charles Darwin called this manifestation a natural altruism.
If the situation is completely opposite, thenwe can talk about natural selfishness. Many scientists and philosophers believe that this feeling is inherent in everyone to a different extent. The degree of censure of selfishness from early childhood, most likely, determines how conscientious a person will grow up. Western science believes that children are born with an equal degree of altruism and selfishness, the quality that most approve is prevailing.
Analysis of Conscience
In order to analyze this concept,a consciousness of freedom and sinfulness is necessary. Mathematical language can be said that the conscience of man is the difference between those actions that are permissible, and those that are impossible for any reasons. Quite often the manifestation of this feeling is connected with faith. Conscience is an internal warden who controls the morality of actions. For believing people, first of all immoral ones will be those who contradict their commandments.
As a rule, honor and conscience are alwaysare identified with each other. For example, the German thinker I. Kant calls this feeling a law that lives in every person and determines its dignity. A. Holbach said that conscience is an internal judge. Only this sense of responsibility accurately demonstrates how much a person's actions deserve censure or approval.
Freedom of conscience
Since the beginning of the concept in question,a huge number of different interpretations of the word, but they were all based on common moral principles (honor, dignity, altruism, kindness), explaining what conscience is. Virtually every thinker and philosopher described the meaning of this word and its basic principles.
In the 19 th century, gradually began to appeara concept like freedom of conscience. This gave a definite impulse to moral democracy. The concept of conscience has become for everyone something purely personal. The environment in which a person grows has become decisive for him. Accordingly, if a person wants his family to live according to certain moral and ethical standards, they must be observed and vaccinated. What is considered wrong and immoral is to be blamed, the good must be approved.
Children and conscience
In order to understand which principlesthe child grows, you can ask him to write a little discussion on the topic "Conscience and I". From the text it will be absolutely clear, in what moments of education it is necessary to pay more attention. Moreover, conscience can lead to certain mental problems. When a child or an adult does not get to do anything "according to conscience", he begins to be tormented by a sense of guilt. Such frequent conditions can lead even to suicides. Children need to explain what conscience is, in their words, to teach how to act, so that there is no remorse, and to tell that there are situations when there is no way to do it anyway.