What color can plastids be in plants
The basis of plant physiology is the processphotosynthesis - the transformation of solar energy into the energy of chemical bonds. The main organ of photosynthesis is the leaf. The surface of the leaf is covered with a thin skin - the epidermis, under which is located chlorenchyme - the same tissue in the cells of which the process of photosynthesis is carried out. In some plants, between the epidermis and the chlorenchyma, there is another additional layer of cells called the "hypoderm". The cells of the hypoderm are transparent, and their main function is the diffusion of sunlight.
Cells of chlorenchyme contain the main organoid, which carries out photosynthesis-plastids. We learn about what and what color plastids can be from the school biology course.
What is plastids?
Plastids are intracellular organoids,surrounded by a double membrane. Inside each plastid is filled with a special liquid - a matrix. The matrix contains the enzymes necessary for the synthesis of glucose, the final product of photosynthesis. With the help of a number of enzymes, 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 water are converted into 2 glucose molecules. One of the main "actors" is a molecule of chlorovill - a green pigment, which gives color to the leaves of plants.
Types of plastids
If the child asks you what color can beplastids, do not rush to answer that they are necessarily green. All is not so clear! The color of the plastids is attached to the pigment, which is contained in them. Depending on this, several types are distinguished: proplastids, leukoplasts, chloroplasts, chromoplasts. It is on the type and depends on what color plastids are.
Proplastids are colorless organelles, fromwhich subsequently form all other types of plastids. Leukoplasts also do not have color. Chloroplasts are colored green, and they determine the color of leaves and stems.
Chromoplasts are the most exotic typeplastids. In the matrix chromoplasts contain carotenoids, and in this case they determine what color plastids can be - orange, yellow, pink, red, bard or brown. Chromoplastics give a characteristic coloration to flowers and fruits.
Functions of plastids
From what color plastids can be,depends on their functions. More precisely, from the pigment that is included in their composition. The main function of plastids is photosynthesis, but not all plastids are capable of photosynthesis, but only chloro- and chromoplasts.
Leukoplasts are "aged" plastids, which serve to store substances, mainly starch, and proplastids give rise to all other types of plastids.
Thus, the functions depend on whichflowers can be plastids. Green chloroplasts synthesize new substances, and colored and bright chromoplasts attract insect pollinators to flowers. Colorless leukoplasts preserve the reserves of nutrients.