What are the means of expressiveness in Russian?
One of the skills of language training, whichshould receive schoolchildren in the process of training - the ability to analyze the artistic text, to determine, with the help of which means the author was able to achieve its expressiveness.
This is one of the requirements of the program that causesthe greatest difficulties for schoolchildren in the lesson of literature. Trying to make it easier for them, I will try to list the means of expressiveness, give them a brief description, lead the simplest (not from art texts) examples.
What is the use of expressive means? To make the speech brighter, colorful, more emotional. In order to give the text an author's originality, to convey the subtlest nuances of thoughts or images. Think, which of these proposals more accurately conveys the author's attitude to the subject? We built a hut. We built a hut, huge, like a real house. It is noticeable that the means of expressiveness help not only to ascertain the magnitude of the object, but they do it very clearly.
One of the methods of creating an artistic text is an anaphora or one-man management. (I do not like it when it rains. I do not like when the sun shines. I do not like anything at all). Anaphora is needed in order to convey the essence, the quintessence of thought or text.
To distinguish a certain idea in the text helps the epiphary - a single ending of sentences. It can be lexical (one word repeated) or semantic (it is repeated synonym). (She gave me life. Now she wants to ruin my destiny).
Using some means of expressiveness,you can give your speech an ironic meaning, emphasize the comic character, caricature of the character. The grotesque helps. Perhaps, one of the most striking and famous grotesque images is Koschey the Immortal.
Means of expressiveness help express their attitude to the subject without directly naming its qualities. This is helped by irony (allegory). (The choice of dishes was endless: potatoes, potatoes and potatoes once again.)
Exaggeration in literature is called a hyperbole. It is also designed to enhance the expressiveness of speech. (I called him a million times, but he never picked up the phone).
In contrast to hyperbole, they use lithoty, an understatement. The rather vulgar expression "below the plinth"Built with lithoty.
Comparisons in the literature are a technique that speaks for itselfyourself. This allegory, which establishes the similarity between the two phenomena. In comparison, there is a basic image in which the meaning of the whole statement is concluded, and an additional image attached with the help of the union. (Head buzzes like a huge brass bell).
Combine incompatible text in order to strengthen the image, allows an oxymoron. The complexity of its use lies in the fact that in the image, opposing concepts should be connected. (A man was gripping the hot snow with his lips. The bank was cold boiling water.)
To distinguish the most essential of what is said helps the inversion or, in another way, the reverse order of words. The closer the word is to the beginning of the sentence, the more important it is. Compare:I went to the shop. I went to the store. I went to the store.
In Russian there is such a thing as neologisms. And means of expressiveness allow the use of occasionalisms (neologisms copyright). In Sholokhov it isblush brick, in Mayakovsky -rabbit, the Severyanin -azure(Colour). The main task of occasionalisms is accuracy. Here are examples of modern neologisms that appeared as authoring, but are now known to many:google, bot (robot), keyboard (keyboard).
It is impossible in one article to list allexpressive means: they are taught for years at school, at philological faculties. You can only list some of them (which I did) and encourage people to learn Russian at least in order to convey their thoughts juicyly, intelligibly, emotionally.