The Third June Monarchy
In 1907, on June 3, a new law was passed. According to the Resolution, the representation from the peasants was halved, from workers - to three, from the Caucasus and Poland - also three times. The "non-Russians" from the Trans-Ural regions, students, servicemen, women, youth up to twenty-five years old, etc., were not given the right to vote. The Third June political system allowed for participation in the electoral process only thirteen percent of the total population of the country.
Half of the members of the State Council were appointed by the Emperor. The autocrat had the right of legislative initiative, asserting all laws before they come into force.
The Third June Monarchy presupposed the rightThe emperor to dissolve or suspend the activities of the Duma. The tsar fully controlled the executive power. The Third June monarchy granted the Emperor the right to appoint members of the Council of Ministers - an organ not dependent on the parliament. The government was under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister.
The Third June monarchy assumedthe exercise of judicial power from the imperial name. The king also appointed the supreme body of justice - the Senate. The first instances (district and peasant volost courts), as well as the judicial chambers (second instance) were elected. Judges at the same time were elected for life, and juries - for a specific period in accordance with the property qualification.
The third monarchy admitted the existence oflaws that formally ensure the freedoms that were acquired during the period of the revolution: the Provisional Provisions on Unions were functioning, censorship was abolished, and economic strikes were not banned. But in fact the situation was the opposite. The Third June monarchy - it was actually life by instructions. Freedoms were very limited by circulars, subordinate government acts and other things. More than 75% of the territory of Russia had an ordinance on emergency protection.
In the Third Duma, elected according to the new Law,right-wing nationalist groups, in general, received 32%, right-wing liberal Octobrists - 30%, left-wing - 7%, progressives and cadets - 21%. In the absence of a solid majority, the main influence on the voting process was provided by the Octobrists (as the largest faction).
Despite the current discriminatory law,The Fourth Duma became more left-wing than the Third Duma. Although at the same time the Trudoviks and the Social Democrats reduced their representation. Progressives and cadets received 25%, the Octobrists, receiving 22%, still retained a decisive role, thanks to their political status.
The government has increasingly taken the opportunity to adopt legislative acts without Duma participation.
In 1912-14, the social basis of the ThirdThe monarchy has shrunk quite significantly. The opposition grew stronger, which consisted of all political movements, except the Black Hundreds. The ruling elite proved incapable of embarking on effective transformations. In Russia, there were many problems. However, the inconsistent policy of maneuvering carried out by the government failed to resolve the main difficulties in the country.
At the same time, modernization of the state, implementation oftransformations to solve agrarian, labor and other issues was recognized by the government as measures necessary, without which other efforts aimed at "calming the country" were meaningless. Prime Minister Stolypin, being an ardent supporter of state power and understanding the need for reforms, developed a plan according to which the country started agrarian reform. At the first stage of the reforms in Russia, there was a certain rise in the peasantry. However, in the second stage of the reform, activity fell sharply.
The policy of the state pushed the localThe nobility, which in many respects contributed to the fall of Stolypin. On the other hand, the union with the right-wing liberals was destroyed. All these factors provoked a new upsurge of the revolutionary movement.