The subject of studying cultural studies are processes and phenomena occurring in society
Cultural science as a humanitarian science about commonlaws of the development of culture took shape in the writings of the American scientist Leslie White. The formation of cultural science as a science continues even now. The search for methods, forms, definitions - all this testifies to some of its immaturity, but at the same time it says that this science has come out of philosophy into an independent discipline, although it continues to actively interact with it through the philosophy of culture.
The connection between philosophy and culturology has enoughA complex character caused by interference and interaction. This is due to the fact that the problems of the theory of culture initially developed within the framework of philosophy, and some separate disciplines of culturology under its strong influence.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, philosophy began to take shapethe theory of culture, which is associated with a departure from reflection and an increasing desire to describe what culture is. Moving away from the critical and symbolic attitude to culture, philosophy starts, based on ethnographic and anthropological data, to model and predict the development of culture. With the development of methods of description and the emergence of the first descriptions of culture there is a new science of culturology.
However, in connection with the fact that this young science exists, there are many of its interpretations and definitions from them, there are three main ones.
- Culturology is a complex of disciplines studying culture. The essence is the study of historical development to understand the systemic understanding of it.
- Culturology is the totality of different directions of students of culture in one way or another: sociology of culture, culture philosophy, cultural anthropology, etc.
- Culturology is a science that studies culture. In this regard, has its subject of study, methods and forms.
The subject of studying cultural studies arevarious concepts with the help of which this science describes and studies reality.
The subject of studying cultural studies areprocesses and phenomena occurring in society and having a direct relationship to its culture.
Andthe subject of cultural studies arefeatures and specificity of modern civilization, its essence and specificity.
In the same timethe subject of cultural studies aredifferences in local cultures of individual regions, their development and interchangeability at various stages of historical development.
The process of human development, structure, essence and patterns - this is also the subject of cultural studies.
Thus, culturology studies all phenomenaspiritual and material culture. What is the phenomenon of spiritual culture can be considered on the example of the icon. So, the word "icon", in Greek, means the image, the image. It usually depicts either the face of a saint, or some event from a sacred history. However, the traditional manner of the image is reduced to the minimum details of the material world, concentrating all attention on the spiritual. The icon fulfills the function of the object of worship.
The material culture is daily life: food, cooking and raw materials, natural needs, etc. Although the division of culture into spiritual and material is relatively arbitrary. So at one time in Russia there were many bans on eating in accordance with biblical instructions. For example, there was a strict ban on the use of burbot (they lacked scales), crayfish and potatoes, which they called "fucking eggs." Based on these prohibitions on eating potatoes in the century before last, a wave of peasant riots took place in the Perm Region. Although currently there are no such prohibitions.
Studying the phenomena of material and spiritual culture, culturology reveals its regularities.