The ontology of culture is a doctrine that considers the concept of the existence of culture
Ontology as the doctrine of existence (being)
In modern philosophy, questions of being are stillremain the most fundamental, as in all philosophical works written earlier. One of the sections of philosophy - ontology - is the doctrine of existence (being), of its search. By being, one should understand the philosophical category, which means everything that does not depend on the consciousness of man. Being has several types - social, individual and being of nature. Public being is a set of principles and laws, according to which society exists and develops. Individual being is a system of principles and laws, according to which the individual person lives. It also includes the inner world of everyone. To the being of nature belongs all that exists, except man. Therefore, ontology as a doctrine of being considers different aspects of it.
A person is surrounded by numerous objects,things that have different properties. They form the so-called world around them. People can have different ideas about this world in different ways, but they all recognize that it exists realistically, this is its being.
The philosophical concept of being consists in the connectiondiverse objects with different properties, among themselves and with everything else that exists in the world. Therefore, ontology is the doctrine of being (being) as a single system, all components of which are in close interconnection, thereby creating unity, integrity. At the same time, the world is discrete, divided, but it has a clear structure.
One can say that ontology as the doctrine of being is a metaphysics of being, that is, scientific knowledge about the principles of being and supersensible principles.
What is included in the concept of cultural ontology
Ontology, being a special section of philosophy,describes universal and universal laws. In particular, its subdivision is the ontology of culture (this is a special object of analysis, which is not confined to nature, society, reality, but it is the space where the senses of being are born, transmitted by symbols and signs).
Cultural space can not be described,guided by the laws of development of society and natural life. This space is characterized by special ontological characteristics, because it is the product of man's creation. Culture is one of the models of the world, through which one can describe the structure of relations in society.
Thus, the ontology of culture is a subsection of philosophy that studies the place that culture occupies as a sphere of human activity in the spiritual and material aspects.
Material, spiritual and artistic culture
The term "culture" should be understooda set of values, both material and spiritual, the ways of creating them, the ability to preserve them and use them for the further development of mankind, to betray to their descendants.
It is generally accepted that the ontology of culture ismaterial, spiritual and artistic culture. The material is objects of labor, housing, clothing, vehicles, means of production, etc. But this kind of culture is represented not only by certain objects, it includes the knowledge, abilities and skills of the individual engaged in the production process. Human physical development is also part of this culture. Thus, it is connected with communicative and transformational activity.
Spiritual culture is art, religion,education, science and the level of implementation of its achievements in life and production, traditions, customs, rituals, medicine, the degree of development of people's needs and interests in material and spiritual plans. It is also possible to include relationships between people, as well as the relationship of a person to himself and nature, which develops in the process of activity. Therefore, it can be argued that the spiritual culture unites various types of activity - communicative, cognitive, value-orientational, transformative.
Art culture is a world of art,which is characterized by interaction with society and other types of culture. This kind of culture is a product of man's artistic activity. Art culture is in close relationship with all kinds of art. It includes the following components: art science, art production, art criticism, "consumption" of works of art (listeners, viewers). These components are formed and developed around their center - art.
Thus, the ontology of culture is a division of philosophy that considers issues related to the fundamental principles of the existence of culture, the scientific and theoretical problems of its essence.