The natural zones of Africa and their diversity
The natural areas of Africa are characterized by a largediversity, because the continent itself is located on the equator and stretches from it for thousands of kilometers. Among their main species are a zone of equatorial forests, savannahs and light forests, as well as deserts and semi-desert territories, evergreen forests and shrubs.
Since in Africa with latitudethe amount of heat and humidity level gradually increases or decreases, and the relief is very diverse, this causes the natural zones of Africa within the equatorial forests to be subdivided into wet-equatorial, alternately moist forests. As for savannas and sparse forests, here one can distinguish a damp and dry area.
As for the animal world in the equatorial zoneforests, it is characterized by great diversity. A large part of these animals are adapted to life on trees. These include monkeys, various species of birds, as well as rodents and insects. Among the terrestrial fauna in Africa, there are many elephants, rhinoceroses, as well as hippos, small ungulates, etc. You can see lizards and snakes. As for insects, the most dangerous of them is the tsetse fly, whose bite causes a sleeping sickness in a person.
The climate and natural areas of Africa are indirect dependence on each other. Thus, in the upper layers of rocks, where it is moist and hot, favorable conditions are created for the formation of compounds with a high content of aluminum and iron. The soil becomes a reddish shade, and therefore has the name red-yellow ferrallitnoy. It does not have a high fertility, because organic substances do not have time to accumulate due to their rapid decomposition.
Such natural areas of Africa as savannahs andwoodlands are characterized by an abundance of vegetation, the height of which can reach more than five meters. During the dry season, the grass burns out, and leaves fall from the trees. These territories are characterized by the diversity of the animal world, among which are the herbivorous representatives of the fauna - antelopes, zebras, buffaloes. The world of reptiles is very widely represented; it is often possible to meet lizards, snakes and chameleons.
The natural areas of Africa, which aredeserts and semi-deserts, extend to the north and south of the continent and occupy large areas (30% of the total). As for vegetation, in these areas it is practically nonexistent. On the rocks grow lichens, and also there are here and there a bunch of grasses and thorny bushes. All this is the result of scanty precipitation. Sometimes there is a situation in which raindrops evaporate before they reach the ground.
Animals are used to those natural conditions,which characterized Africa. If you describe the temperature regime, it should be noted that in the daytime there is very hot and dry air, and at night it becomes much colder. Sand and dust storms are also common in these areas.
Soils of deserts and semi-deserts of continuous cover are notform. They have a very low content of organic substances, but many mineral salts. If there are places where groundwater is near the surface of the earth, there vegetation is characterized by diversity. Such places are called oases.
Natural areas are characterized by diversityclimatic conditions, because they have their own characteristics. The fact is that some of the animals can go without water for a long time, while others can overcome long distances in its search.
In the zone of subtropical hardwood forests, the amount of precipitation falls according to a certain season. Summer is very hot, and the winter is damp and mild. Soils here have acquired a natural brown shade.
Africa, the natural zones of which are characterized by the diversity of both climatic conditions and the animal and plant world, is a continent with pronounced latitudinal zonality.