The Great Silk Road is an ancient trading road
In history there is information about a huge numberancient roads that served people. On the historical routes large armies passed, and cities along the roads were attacked (and sometimes acted as aggressors themselves). In peacetime, ancient roads linked the cultural, political and commercial life of different states.
The Great Silk Road is considered the mostknown and most significant in the world. This trade road formed a "trigon", which connected the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific. This great "highway" crossed Eurasia. It connected the Mediterranean with the Far East.
It should be noted that the Great Silk Roadwas not just an expensive or even a system of trade routes. He acted as the most complex cultural and economic bridge between the territories of the West and the East, connecting peoples who were striving for mutual cooperation and peaceful coexistence. For example, the Great Silk Road on the territory of Kazakhstan (if to go east from the west) left Tashkent via Turbat (pass) to Isfijab (Sayram). The name of the city came to our days. So called the village near Shymkent, in the center of which are the remains of a medieval settlement. This city was once considered one of the largest centers of the Silk Road. They exported white cloth, slaves, iron, swords and other weapons from Isfidzhab, copper.
Modern scientists believe that the Great SilkThe path appeared around the 2nd century BC. e. The name itself was introduced much later, in the 19th century. The term "Great Silk Road" appeared in scientific use after writing in 1877 by Richthofen (a German historian and traveler) of the work "China". It should be noted that until this moment the road was called the Western Meridional Way. However, the scientific term included the term given by Richthofen.
According to historical evidence, the emperorChina Wu Di sent an ambassador in 138 BC. e. in search of allies to fight against the warlike Hunnic tribes that devastated the northern Chinese territories. Ambassador Zhang Qian, after returning from the trip, spoke in detail about his visit to Central Asia. The Emperor of China also received information about the most convenient trade roads. They will later become the basis of the Silk Road.
On trade-exchange transactions betweenCentral Asian cities and China, information is mainly contained in Chinese chronicles from the 1st century. BC. e. for the 7th-8th centuries. n. e. The earliest sources tell of donations made to the imperial palace from the Central Asian region.
With the passage of time,trade relations between China and Central Asian cities. Annually from the imperial court took no less than five caravans to the west, accompanied by hundreds of guards. We drove metal products, silk. They were exchanged for corals, horses, jade, various Central Asian goods. It should be noted that China's products have been in demand in various countries. Unique silk fabrics were priced in Persia and the states west of it.
The 16th century is characterized by a certain weakeningtrade relations of Central Asian cities and China. Mainly this was due to the discovery of sea roads, the intensification of conflicts in feudal society, and internecine strife in Semirechye. The relations between the Safavid states in Iran and the Central Asian countries of the Sheibanids also became strained. As a result, a sharp decline in caravan trade began.
In the 19th century, the attention of the countries of Europe was turned towards Turkestan. At that time the Sholkovo Path became a legend. The second time this road was discovered accidentally as a result of some political circumstances.
On the Silk Road archaeological research began in 1900. However, after the beginning of the First World Study was suspended.