Stereo. Zinari Zakharievich Vinogradov (73 photos)
April 15, 2017
Surprisingly, little is known about this clearly uncommon photographer. Vinogradov traveled all over the Volga region and created a large album of photographs, for which he received an award and was exhibited in Moscow.
Zakhar Vinogradov (1882-1963) was born in the family of a merchant of the 2nd guild, hereditary honorary citizen Z. I. Vinogradov. In 1894 he entered the Kharkiv Real School, and in 1901 - the mechanical department of the Kharkov Technological Institute, in 1903 he was expelled for participation in student unrest. In 1906 he moved to Moscow and devoted himself entirely to photography. Member of the expedition of V.A. Rusanov to Novaya Zemlya in 1908 as a photographer. His stereoscopic series is primarily a geographical and ethnographic study, especially significant for Russia, with its enormous territory and population of different composition. In 1910, in a series of stereo pairs "Life and Nature of Russia" made a selection of stereo "Crimea". The photos of Vinogradov were published in the magazine Iskra, No. 6, 1911.The owner of the photographic workshop "Species of Russia". Pupil A. M. Donde, photographer and author of one of the manuals on stereoscopic shooting, Vinogradov took into account all the requirements and possibilities of stereo photography, such as the location of the light and the ratio of plans.
Today, three-dimensional image has firmly entered the life of modern man: we go to 3D cinema, we buy magazines with three-dimensional images inside, we use separate techniques in printing and web-design, believing that stereo is almost the latest technological achievement. However, its history goes back nearly two centuries, and the effect of the appearance of a voluminous picture fascinated the audience from the 30s of the XIX century.
Despite the development of technology, the main principle of creating a three-dimensional frame remains the same: it is necessary to make two shots of one plot (each of which corresponds to the view of the right and left eye), which when viewed merge into one three-dimensional image. The way stereoscopic viewing has changed more: the screen and special glasses made collective viewing possible, while looking into a stereoscope,The viewer of the XIX century was left alone with the image.
Being incredibly popular, stereo photography did not claim the status of a work of art. One of the features of stereoscopic views is that the author of the images most often remains unknown. The key role belongs not to the photographer, but to the company that produces stereographic cards: “Underwood and Underwood” in the USA, Great Britain, Japan, Canada; Granberg Joint Stock Company in Sweden; stereographic publishing house “Svet” in Russia, etc. The manufacture and production of large quantities of stereoscopic views, special sets that were sold separately or bundled with a stereoscope, was a good business.
Becoming a commercially successful business, early stereo served, at first glance, opposite goals. On the one hand, it turned out to be included in the field of scientific knowledge: medicine, geography, astronomy and other sciences were able to use a new type of image as a visual aid. Stereophotography seemed to reinforce reality, and all the objects were available for “palpation” with the eye.What was previously thought of as abstract (for example, the correspondence of the lunar phases and tides) took on more than concrete forms that could be observed in a stereoscope. At the same time, stereoscopic photographs taken in different parts of the world (Japan, China, Canada, etc.), which in the middle and end of the XIX century for most Europeans remained no less abstraction than the phases of the moon and biological processes, became especially popular. Sets of stereo photographs from exotic countries substituted a real tiresome journey, and the viewer could get a comprehensive impression not only about nature and landscapes, but also about the people who inhabited this region. However, stereophotography was not always the only means of noble leisure: in the middle of the 19th century, erotic and even pornographic cards became especially widespread, considering which, due to the same “naturalism”, the images turned out to be among sensual pleasures of a completely different order.
The three-dimensional image seemed to compensate for the lack of human mobility of the 19th century, who froze in anticipation of revolutionary changes, the reach and accessibility of the world.Stereophotography has become an indispensable tool in an attempt to describe and organize, catalog the world around us, to which the science of the XIX century largely sought. In this sense, a series of stereo photographs of the Russian photographer Zakhar Vinogradov is characteristic, who made numerous expeditions around the Russian Empire, from where he brought in detailed photo reports, mostly recorded on stereo cameras.
354 photos were made in Kostroma Vinogradov in 1913 (on the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov). In 1922, he returned to Moscow, worked as a photographer at the Commission for the Protection of Monuments of Art and Antiquities, at the Moscow City Museum Museum.
In 1924, Mr .. V. worked in the photo lab of the museum visual aids of the Moscow Society of Agriculture. In 1925, his work on changing the nature of negativity was demonstrated in the Russian Photographic Society in Moscow (“The Photographer”, 1927, No. 5-6, p. 156). Founding member of the All-Russian Photographic Society (1928). In the years 1929-30. made photographs of the Moscow region for the guidebook.
In 1936, a teacher of the Central Photocourse "Soyuzfoto".