Shosh's machine gun: a review, description, characteristics and reviews
Shosh's machine gun was called an individual weapon,which became famous not for positive moments, but won the glory of the worst machine gun with many shortcomings. The command of the French army and other countries used it as an armament of soldiers during the First World War and in subsequent years.
Description of the machine gun
The original appearance of the machine gun with a longthe trunk does not allow to confuse it with other weapon models of that time. The machine gun of the Shosh system in the construction consists of a long barrel tube, beneath it is a mechanism on a bulky box. Cartridges are fed from the lower semicircular magazine, thin bipods protrude forward. Two wood knobs complete the picture, the butt looks asymmetrically short compared to the trunk.
At the heart of the automatic operation of the machine gun liesthe principle of kickback of a barrel with a long movement, through which the mechanism for the subsequent supply of ammunition is triggered. The larva enters the clutch with the trunk laterally and locks the canal. The constantly-activated trigger mechanism performs single shots of continuous action.
The aiming is done by sight on the backgroundsector sight. The described automatic scheme allows you to fire at a slow pace. Modern weapons theorists unequivocally speak of such a class of triggering mechanism as an unnecessary principle, but in those wartime automatics with a low rate of combat are used quite widely.
The gun Shosh is characterized by two handles,one of which is located under the butt by the type of the pistol model, the second for keeping the balance while shooting is under the long barrel. Permanently installed on folding legs. The production does not require large material costs, therefore in a short time more than 200 thousand units of a kind of automatic machine are produced.
Use in battle
French military ranks immediately afterrelease of the first models recognize the best weapon as a manual machine-gun. The Shosh machine gun is rapidly moving from production workshops to trenches, its use is becoming popular. The weapon refers to hand-held devices, since its weight does not exceed 10 kg with a carbine.
On the left side of the box there areThe holes that allow them to attach a belt for fastening behind their backs in a hike according to the type of rifle. The French army was famous for the concept of "wandering fire" due to the fact that Shosh's machine gun arr. 1915 allowed to shoot from the hip during walking and cross-country rides.
Origin of weapons
The initial task of the designers wasthe creation of a self-loading machine gun or an automatic light rifle for shooting with standard cartridges of the Lebel gun. The forefather of the weapon is the Swiss gunsmith of Hungarian origin Frommer. He is trying to introduce the invented rifle into the army of his country, but the tests revealed the failure of the weapon, and the government responded with a refusal.
The restless inventor turns to the French,who decide to finalize the concept for equipping soldiers. The automatic rifle Shosha gets its name by the name of the chairman of the French committee, engaged in the creation of this weapon. The letters C.S.R.G. appeared in the name of an automatic rifle due to the name of all the components of production. Clianchat (controlling link), Snlerre (engineer), Ribeyrolle (technologist-technologist), Gladiator (plant). People's rumor called a machine gun named after colonel of the French army Shosh.
Advantages of the machine gun
The design of the weapon is developed taking into accountthe possibility of its production in non-specialized factories. The Gladiator company, which produced the first control lot, is a bicycle factory. The Shosha machine gun CSRG M1915 conquers the open spaces of factory workshops and becomes massive. Advantages of the machine gun a little:
- One of them is a small weight, allowing the soldier to maneuver and shoot from different positions.
- The second positive quality is that the slow rate of fire does not allow the use of a large number of cartridges, and the ammunition consumption is significantly reduced.
- The third advantage is the cheapness of manufacture and the simplicity of the device.
At this point, the positive characteristicsthe arms end. Without finishing the cycle of certain tests, the machine gun is sent to arm the army. And already a year after equipping with an automatic rifle, it is beginning to massively remove c weapons warehouses of existing military formations. The disadvantages turned out to be greater than the merits.
Disadvantages of the machine gun design
The weapon is designed with visible defects,for example, the larva in the trunk is constantly distorted, the machine gun wedges at critical moments. In a long pipe, dust and dirt constantly accumulate, which adversely affects the accuracy of the shooting. The Shosh machine gun infects the targets very mediocrely because more than 3 kg of heavy parts moved in the light rifle when the shot was fired.
Unsuccessful design and store form is notallow all ammunition to get into the trunk in the correct position, the last cartridges are rotated in the chamber rear end forward. This causes the device to stop, requires disassembly and correction of the malfunction. In the conditions of combat this is a waste of time and promises defeat.
Very often the spring becomes unusablecarbine and requires replacement, and in the field it is difficult. The novelty for reducing the weight of the machine gun in the form of windows on the walls of the store turns out that its unreliable work is subjected to testing with additional dirt and dust in combat conditions.
Shosh's machine gun won a negative attitudethe fact that when firing from it could fly out parts. The trunk box, casing and metal frame are fastened together by one bolt, which is not tightened firmly due to the thickness of the layer and is twisted out of the hole under the influence of vibration. The loss of the fastening element results in the cessation of the shooting.
Modifications of the machine gun
By years, the models change as follows:
- In 1915, the model Mle 1915 was released using a cartridge from a French rifle.
- 1918 was marked by the beginning of the production of a machine gun for the use of an American cartridge of 7.62 caliber.
- The modification version for Belgian ammunition 7.65 was launched in production in 1927.
Use of machine gun in other countries
Characteristics of the lame quality could notto attract other countries to purchase such a machine gun, but it turned out not to be so. The orders of the director of the military department of the American army were enough to transfer about 16,000 weapons to the battlefields in eastern France for the arming of American soldiers who fought there.
At the same time, Colonel Isaac LewisAmerica production of reliable machine guns, but the head of the department because of personal dislike to him stops the choice of low-quality weapons and supplies the army Shosh-machine gun. Americans, accustomed to a comfortable war, for a long time did not practice such weapons. While one of the military fired, two more quickly tried to charge out-of-order shops.
The Director of the Military Department makes a decisionabout the release of a new modification for the American cartridge and in 1918 he produces a shipment of updated Shosh machine guns in the number of more than 19 thousand pieces. The new model is not much better than the first. The number of cartridges in the store is reduced to 16, and the error in the drawings turns the barrel chamber into an uncomfortable shape, which makes it difficult to remove the cartridges.
The use of an automatic Shosh gun in Russia
Russian Empire during the First World WarAt the end of 1916, 500 Shosha machine guns were delivered from France. The further period of military operations required the transfer of the French invention in the amount of 5,600 units. This weapon was successfully and not very much used by the Red Army for conducting civil war. The use continued after its termination.
In France, the machine gun F.Shosh C.S.R.G. 1915, released under the patron of full-time production, is used to arm the army in early 1915, but is withdrawn from use in 1924.
The first world characteristic for the German Empirethe arming of the army with a small number of automatic machine guns received as trophies in military operations on the western front. During the Second World War, the Third Reich also uses the Shosh trophy machine gun as a modification for French, Belgian and Yugoslav cartridges.
Finland equips soldiers of its army with machine guns twice - during the Finnish-Soviet war and in the war against the Soviet Union until 1944. Supplies mean the purchase of 5,000 pieces of machines.
Romania, which took part in the First World War,uses for the whole period of 7,200 weapons. At the same time, 5,000 pieces of rifles are delivered to Poland. In Italy, the command quickly understands what a Shosha machine gun is, so automatic rifles did not gain a visible advantage. But a certain amount is provided for arming the crews of armored vehicles.
Actions for dismantling the Shosha machine gun 1915
- The machine gun is discharged.
- Pressing the stopper at the back of the box from the bottom removes the plate with the springs.
- The springs are separated, then the clutch of the stop is removed.
- The casing is separated from the box by retracting the handle for cocking back, the connection bolt is removed, the contactor rotates with the head down.
- Shoot the dispatcher with the handle of the platoon and the direction bar and remove it from the hole in the receiver.
- After removing the box, the trigger is disassembled.
Assemblage of the automatic machine gun is made in the reverse order.
The opinions of experts on the design of weapons
R. Lidshun, G. Wollert describes in his book "Small arms yesterday" Shosh's machine gun as a weapon, which is acceptable for use by infantrymen, since a soldier can carry it on himself during an assault. If we talk about a massive application, then such machine guns significantly raised the firepower in the attack and retreat. In the modern world, the value of weapons is reduced to none, but in that situation, its use was justified.
Knowledge of the history of France says that this countrywas not in step with the then world, hence the creation of a machine gun. This rifle serves as an apple of discord among the American lovers of weapons. Many enthusiasts say that the machine gun should be brewed tightly and not be used in military operations. Such thoughts are expressed by Ford R. in the book "The hellish mower".
Russian commander Fedorov believed that a gun in the form of a machine gun, characterized by a long pullback, is considered obsolete, and relief in shooting is achieved by shortening the trunk.
So, the Shosha machine gun of 1915 is not consideredvery successful example of automatic weapons. Its use in battle by many countries suggests that this machine gun was one of the first prototypes of subsequent successful models.