Sections of ecology and their brief characteristics. Main sections of ecology

Sections of ecology and their brief characteristics. Main sections of ecology

Man, being a part of the noosphere, is compelled to decidethe interaction of society with the environment. Science, which examines and analyzes the connections of populations of living organisms among themselves and their habitats, and also studies the influence of natural factors on plant, animals and other forms of life, is called ecology. For a more detailed study of this biological discipline is divided into branches: synecology, out-ecology, demecology, human ecology.

sections of ecology

They are integrated and are part of theinterdisciplinary complex, which includes not only sections of ecology, but also other sciences: economics, sociology, psychology. This article will be devoted to studying the branches of environmental science and determining their significance for human development in harmony with living nature.

Ecology sections and their brief description

The task of the disciplines is deeper andcomprehensive study of various aspects of science: biological, social and economic. For example, the main attention is paid to the peculiarities of the interrelationships of plants, animals and bacteria with their habitat, general ecology as a science. Sections of ecology solve the problems of life-support of populations in biogeocenoses. Geoecology considers the specificity of living communities in specific geographical conditions: in the mountains, freshwater reservoirs, seas, etc. Next we will consider the above and other sections of the ecology in more detail.

The tasks of general ecology

The most important of these is the study of naturallevels of their organization. Such a section as autecology, systemizes various manifestations of environmental conditions, delineating them into abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. It is known how important is the temperature regime, illumination and water supply for the life of plants, animals and humans. Scientists also analyze adaptations that arise under the influence of changing conditions both in populations and at the level of biogeocoenosis.

main sections of ecology

Synecology, like other sections of modernecology, explores the interaction of elements of biogeocenosis at the level of groups of organisms of different biological species. They are expressed in such forms as mutualism, parasitism, commensalism, symbiosis. It should be noted that environmental factors studied at the level of ecology are refracted through the life forms of various organisms, which is a fundamental difference between them from studies conducted, for example, in climatology, soil science or hydrology.

Demecology is the key to understanding the functioning of the biocenosis

This section of environmental science is studyingproperties of the basic structural unit of living nature - the population. This concept encompasses a group of organisms of a single biological species that inhabit a common area - the area. Scientific discipline, like other main sections of ecology, classifies populations into local, geographical and ecological species. She also studies in detail such properties of living communities as the ability to reproduce and evolve, highlighting their varieties - permanent and temporal. The latter in the process of phylogenesis can be transformed into permanent populations or eliminated.

How to distinguish interspecific communities

A logical continuation of the study of propertiesthe population of living organisms is synecology. It, like other sections of the general ecology, analyzes the patterns of interrelations of organisms of various species established during the evolution process. They reflect the hierarchy of ecosystems and consist of co-ordinated levels. Studies of the life of plants, microorganisms, animals in their natural habitat are conducted by scientists to establish the patterns that organize them into biocenoses.

sections of general ecology

How do organisms adapt to changing environmental factors?

We will get answers to this question, consideringthe main sections of ecology, in particular such discipline as outecology. It formulated several postulates explaining the mechanisms of adaptation, for example, the law of the optimum, establishing for each organism the boundaries of its vital activity in all abiotic factors (the so-called limits of tolerance). The center of this zone of habitat life is called the optimum. This is the range of the most favorable living conditions of a living organism.

ecology as a science sections of ecology

Due to a sharp deterioration of the environment inscience, it became necessary to identify the adaptation mechanisms that are formed in living organisms as a result of physicochemical and radioactive contamination of the biosphere.

The human impact on biogeocenoses

It is comprehensively studied by several scientificdisciplines, which include sections of applied ecology. As a person developing industry and infrastructure, agriculture. changes the face of natural complexes? How does the application of new nanotechnologies transform the face of the Earth? The answers to these questions are given to us by the following sections of ecology: the theory of artificial systems, urboecology, and biospherology. Anthropogenic factors, such as direct (for example, pollution of the hydrosphere by industrial and domestic sewage, predatory deforestation, poaching), and indirect (for example, the creation of artificial seas - reservoirs, plowing of land, leading to soil erosion and salinity, dehumidification), change the equilibrium natural biosystems - biocenoses and are a direct threat to life on Earth. The red book is a vivid confirmation of the criminal activity of a person, leading to the extinction and death of a huge number of biological species.

sections of modern ecology

Perspectives of applied ecology

This is a relatively young branch of science,in the ecology sections. The table below defines all of its sub-structural branches associated with the main areas of human activity and the relationship between the society and wildlife.

Theoretical

ecology

General ecology

Synecology, demecology, outecology

Bioecology

Biospherology, ecology of living organisms, paleoecology

Applied

ecology

Landscape

Geological, atmospheric

Technoecology

Commercial, construction

Socioecology

Ecological education, ecology, eco-culture

So bioresource and industrial ecologyoffers sparing methods of exploitation of agricultural lands, forests, seas and other ecosystems, which are aimed at preserving their fertility and productivity.

The urgency of research of urban ecology

Studying various departments of ecology, we will stop ata discipline highlighting the problems that arise in the urban environment and related to the disproportion in the development of urban infrastructure and biogeocenosis, in which urbanization processes take place. Heat and water supply systems, sewerage, transport network, territories for the disposal of solid domestic waste are created by a person, usually without taking into account the safety of natural complexes. As a consequence, natural forest plantations disappear, water ponds are diminishing, populations of insects, birds and small mammals that inhabit the ecosystem are reduced. As a result, modern megacities represent huge high-rise conglomerates built of plastic, glass and concrete. They are completely alien to natural biosystems.

sections of ecology and their brief description

Urboecology is trying to find acceptable,compromise ways of functioning of already constructed cities, and also defines requirements of building of new megacities taking into account needs of elements of natural ecosystems: plant and animal organisms. Science also predicts the consequences of human activities and monitors the condition of soil, water and the atmosphere in large cities.

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