Pulse generator with own hands. High-voltage pulse generator
Pulse generators are devices thatcan create waves of a certain shape. The clock frequency in this case depends on many factors. The main purpose of generators is considered to be the synchronization of processes in electrical appliances. Thus, the user has the ability to customize a different digital technique.
As an example, you can bring the clock, as well as timers. The main element of devices of this type is considered to be the adapter. In addition to the generators are installed capacitors and resistors together with diodes. The main parameters of the devices include the excitation of oscillation and negative resistance.
Generators with inverters
Make a pulse generator with your own hands withInverters can be used at home. To do this, the adapter will need a non-condenser type. Resistors are best used for field. The momentum transfer parameter is quite high. Condensers to the device must be selected based on the power of the adapter. If its output voltage is 2 V, then the minimum capacitor capacitance should be at 4 pF. It is also important to monitor the negative resistance parameter. On average, it must fluctuate around 8 ohms.
Model of rectangular pulses with a regulator
To date, the generator of rectangularpulses with regulators is quite common. In order for the user to be able to adjust the frequency limit of the device, it is necessary to use a modulator. On the market by manufacturers they are presented rotary and button type. In this case, it is best to consider the first option. All this will allow more fine tuning and not be afraid of a failure in the system.
The modulator is installed in the generatorrectangular pulses directly to the adapter. In this case, the soldering must be done very carefully. First of all, it is necessary to clean all contacts well. If we consider non-condenser adapters, then their outputs are on the upper side. In addition, there are analog adapters that are often available with a protective cover. In this situation, it must be removed.
In order for the device to have a highbandwidth, you need to install resistors in pairs. The parameter of excitation of oscillations in this case must be at the level of 4 ms. As the main problem, the rectangular pulse generator (the circuit is shown below) has a sharp increase in operating temperature. In this case, check the negative resistance of the capacitor adapter.
Overlapping pulse generator
To make a pulse generator with your own hands,the adapter is best used in analog form. Regulators in this case are not necessary. This is due to the fact that the level of negative resistance can exceed 5 ohms. As a result, a fairly large load is applied to the resistors. Condensers to the device are selected with a capacity of at least 4 ohms. In turn, the adapter is connected to them only by output contacts. As the main problem, the pulse generator has the asymmetry of the oscillations that arises from overloading the resistors.
A device with symmetrical pulses
Make a simple pulse generator of this typecan only be using inverters. Adapter in this situation is best to choose an analog type. It costs a lot less on the market than a non-condenser modification. In addition, it is important to pay attention to the type of resistors. Many specialists for the generator are advised to select quartz models. However, their bandwidth is rather low. As a result, the oscillation excitation parameter will never exceed 4 ms. Plus, the risk of overheating of the adapter is added.
Given all of the above, it is more appropriateuse field resistors. The bandwidth in this case will depend on their location on the board. If you choose the option when they are installed in front of the adapter, in this case the excitation rate of the oscillations can reach 5 ms. In a nasty situation, good results can not be expected. To check the pulse generator for operability, you can simply connect the power supply unit to 20 V. As a result, the negative resistance level should be in the region of 3 ohms.
To minimize the risk of overheating,It is additionally important to use only capacitive capacitors. The regulator can be installed in such a device. If we consider rotary modifications, then the modulator of the PPR2 series is suitable. By its characteristics, it is today quite reliable.
Generator with trigger
A trigger is a device that respondsfor signal transmission. To date, they are sold unidirectional or bidirectional. Only the first option is suitable for the generator. The above element is installed near the adapter. In this case, the soldering must be done only after a thorough cleaning of all contacts.
You can even choose an adapter directlyanalog type. The load in this case will be small, and the level of negative resistance for successful assembly will not exceed 5 ohms. The parameter of excitation of oscillations with a trigger is on average 5 ms. The main problem of the pulse generator is this: increased sensitivity. As a result, with the power supply unit above 20 V, these devices can not work.
How to make a generator of increased load?
Let's pay attention to chips. Pulse generators of this type imply the use of a powerful inductor. In addition, only an analog adapter should be selected. In this case, it is necessary to achieve high system throughput. For this, the capacitors are only of capacitive type. At least negative resistance they should be able to withstand at 5 ohms.
Resistors for the device fit the mostvarious. If you choose their closed type, then you need to provide for them a separate contact. If you still stay on the field resistors, then the phase change in this case will take quite a long time. Thyristors for such devices are practically useless.
Models with quartz stabilization
The circuit of a pulse generator of this typeThe use of only a capacitorless adapter is provided. All this is necessary in order for the excitation index to be at least 4 ms. All this will also reduce thermal losses. Condensers for the device are selected based on the level of negative resistance. Additionally, the type of power supply must be considered. If we consider pulse models, then their output current level is on the average at 30 V. All this can ultimately lead to overheating of the capacitors.
To avoid such problems, many specialistsadvise to install zener diodes. They are soldered directly to the adapter. To do this, it is necessary to clean all contacts and check the voltage of the cathode. Auxiliary adapters for such generators are also used. In this situation, they play the role of a switched transceiver. As a result, the excitation parameter of the oscillations rises to 6 ms.
Generators with capacitors PP2
A generator of high-voltage pulses iscapacitors of this type is quite simple. On the market, finding items for such devices does not present any problems. However, it is important to choose a high-quality microcircuit. Many people purchase multi-channel modifications for this purpose. However, they are in the store quite expensive compared to conventional types.
Transistors for generators are the most suitableunrestricted ones. In this case, the negative resistance parameter should not exceed 7 ohms. In this situation, you can hope for stability of the system. To increase the sensitivity of the device, many advise using zener diodes. In this case, triggers are used extremely rarely. This is due to the fact that the bandwidth of the model is significantly reduced. The main problem of capacitors is considered to be the amplification of the limiting frequency.
As a result, a phase change occurs with a largeseparation. To set up the process properly, you must first configure the adapter. If the negative resistance level is at 5 ohms, the device's maximum frequency should be approximately 40 Hz. As a result, the load from the resistors is removed.
Models with PP5 capacitors
A high-voltage pulse generator with the indicatedcapacitors can be found quite often. At the same time it can be used even with 15 V power supply units. Its throughput depends on the adapter type. In this case it is important to determine the resistors. If you select field models, then it is more reasonable to install the adapter precisely of a non-condenser type. In this case, the negative resistance parameter will be in the region of 3 ohms.
Zener diodes are used in this caseoften. This is due to a sharp decrease in the level of the limiting frequency. In order to align it, zener diodes fit perfectly. They are installed, as a rule, near the output port. In turn, the resistors are best soldered near the adapter. The index of vibrational excitation depends on the capacitance of the capacitors. Considering models at 3 pF, we note that the above parameter will never exceed 6 ms.
The main problems of the generator
The main problem with devices with PP5 capacitorsit is considered to be hypersensitivity. At the same time, thermal indicators are also at a low level. Due to this, there is often a need to use a trigger. However, in this case it is still necessary to measure the output voltage. If it is greater than 15 V for a 20 V block, then the trigger can significantly improve system performance.
Devices on the regulators MKM25
The circuit of the pulse generator with this regulatorincludes only closed type resistors. In this case, the chips can be used even series of PPR1. In this case, the capacitors require only two. The level of negative resistance directly depends on the conductivity of the elements. If the capacity of the capacitors is less than 4 pF, then the negative resistance can rise even up to 5 ohms.
To solve this problem, you need touse zener diodes. The regulator in this case is installed on the pulse generator near the analog adapter. In this case, the output contacts must be carefully cleaned. Also check the threshold voltage of the cathode itself. If it exceeds 5 V, you can connect the adjustable pulse generator to two contacts.