Prehistoric animals living in Russia
The Russian scientist with dinosaurs had no luck at all. These animals reigned on the planet in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, when half of the current territory of Russia was covered by shallow seas. In the depths of the land, herds of dinosaurs roamed. But their bones were not preserved - they ended up in the area of the demolition of sediments, from where they came to the seas, to the graves, and were dragging sand and clay. The bones arrived there ground into dust.
1. Olorotitan Arkharinsky (Amur region).
This dinosaur was one of the largest members of its family, reaching a length of 12 meters. It is characterized by signs that are unique to hadrosaurids, the most obvious of which is the unique form of a crest crowning the skull. Like other hadrosaurs, orolotitan could move both on two and on four legs. The structure of the skull made it possible to grind the hard vegetable food, and numerous teeth were replaced throughout life.A wide, hollow crest, formed from the enlarged bones of the skull, was penetrated by the nasal passages and was probably used to feed trumpet sounds. It is also noteworthy that this is one of the last dinosaurs living on the planet. They lived literally at the end of a great extinction.
2. Estemmenozuh (Perm region).
These primitive herbivorous therapids existed even before dinosaurs - about 267 million years ago. In those days, the earth was a single supercontinent Pangea. But it is noteworthy that until now, the remains of estnimozuha were found only in the Perm region. These were large animals, about the size of a temporary minibus. They led a semi-aquatic lifestyle (like hippos). The basis of their food could be dead trunks of kalamits. However, the structure of the dental system does not exclude the omnivorous (for example, food carrion).
3. Psittakozavr (Kemerovo region).
The representative of the infra-order of horned dinosaurs that lived in the early Cretaceous period about 130-100 million years ago. All types of psittacosaurs (and not less than 10 are distinguished by fossil remains) were gazelle bipedal herbivores, with a characteristic high, powerful beak on the upper jaw.At least one of the Psitaccosurus species on the tail and back of the back had long, bird-like formations that probably had a demonstration function.
4. Elasmoterii (Astrakhan region).
Elasmotherium is a genus of rhinos living in Eurasia from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene. They differed in large sizes (length up to 6 meters, height up to 2.5 meters, weight up to 5 tons). Their main feature is a large domed outgrowth on the forehead. Some scientists suggest that it was a long (more than 1.5 m) and a thick horn. At the same time, the bones of the dome are very thin, and the dome itself has a spongy structure. In general, elasmotremia lived not only in Russia. They were distributed from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia. Closely related, but more primitive genera are known from the Miocene-Pliocene of China, Iran and Spain.
5. Titanofoneus (Ural).
One of the largest predators of the Permian period. The length of its skull is about 60 cm, and its entire body is up to 6 meters. The Titanofoneus were distinguished by powerful incisors and canines, 8–9 pairs of small curved teeth. The legs are powerful, not very long, with wide hands and feet (perhaps there was a swimming membrane). The tail is long.In general, the skeleton is quite light. Initially, the titanofon was considered a water predator, like a crocodile, but, probably, adults hunted large vertebrates and on land.
6. Minimum (Kirov region).
Prehistoric synapse belonging to the clade of Anomodontia, who lived about 260 million years ago in the late Permian period. The teeth of the suming were rather large in relation to the size of the body, with one tubercle on each tooth and many notches, as on a knife. During life, the teeth fell out and grew back. The eye socket was quite large. The paws were tenacious, which allowed the researchers to assume that the sunshine was the earliest dendritic vertebrate.
7. Titanosaur (Ulyanovsk region).
A group of lizard-like dinosaurs of the infraorder of sauropods who lived in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods about 171–65.5 million years ago on all continents of the planet except Antarctica. They were herbivorous dinosaurs, with long necks and tails, and moving on four legs. The length reached 35-40 meters and weighed between 88 and 110 tons.
8. Ivantozavr (Perm region).
Huge formidable predator of the middle of the Permian period. An early version of the saber-toothed tiger.This giant's giant could reach 75 cm and canines 15 cm. Ivantozavr lived 40 million years before the advent of dinosaurs and belonged to another, no less diverse group of reptiles - animal beasts, from which modern mammals originated.
9. Cave lion (Yakutia).
An extinct subspecies of lions, inhabiting Europe and Siberia in the Pleistocene epoch. He was one of the largest representatives of the feline family of all time. Previously, his status was not completely clear, but today he is considered to be a clearly distinguished subspecies of modern lions. Cave lions reached a length of up to 2.4 m without tail and were half a meter larger than modern lions. In size, they corresponded to a liger, a hybrid of a lion and a tigress.
According to some studies, cave lions mainly hunted for deer and sometimes for young cave bears, that is, their diet did not differ in diversity, in contrast to their modern relatives, who attack almost everything that moves. According to these researchers, such a stinginess of the diet could be the reason for the extinction of lions, since the warming of the climate began 19 thousand years ago, and the deer with cave bears began to gradually disappear.As a result, the lions lost the main source of food and also began to die out.
10. Mammoth (Siberia).
Mammoths reached a height of 5.5 meters and a body weight of 10-12 tons. Thus, the mammoths were twice as heavy as the largest modern land mammals - African elephants. Mammoths appeared in the Pliocene and lived 2 million - 9000 years ago in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. Numerous mammoth bones found in the sites of an ancient Stone Age man; drawings and sculptures of mammoths made by a prehistoric man were also discovered. In Siberia and Alaska, there are cases of the presence of the corpses of mammoths, preserved thanks to their stay in the permafrost.