Let's try to figure out what is phoneticanalysis of words and sentences. After all, in school, already in the first grade, students are faced with the need to know and be able to perform this analysis. In some kindergartens, too, classes are conducted to study sounds and letters. I will say at once that in order not to make mistakes, the child must have a good phonemic hearing. And to develop it is necessary to parents in the preschool age. Then the children will have considerably less problems in their studies.
Phonetic analysis is a study ofstructure of words, syllables and sounds. It is not enough for children to memorize the rules, it is much more important to be able to listen and determine sounds, to distinguish between the concepts of letter and sound, to put the emphasis in words correctly and to understand transcription.
For convenience, we will draw up a plan, according to which we will conduct a phonetic analysis of words.
- In the beginning it is necessary to write the word correctly. Errors are not allowed, otherwise the parsing will be incorrect.
- Divide the word into syllables.
- Show how to translate this word correctly.
- Indicate the place of stress.
- Record the transcription.
- Select each sound, specify a shock and unstressed vowel, show which consonant sound the letter corresponds to.
- Show exceptions when the sound and letter do not match.
- Write how many sounds and letters in a word.
I. For example, we will analyze the word "friends"
- Friend-I (2 syllables).
- This word can not be transferred.
- Shock second syllable.
- [friends / ya].
- D- (D) solid, sonorous, consonant, paired P -(P) solid, sonorous sound, sonorous, unpaired, consonant, Y- (V) vowel, unstressed, 3 - (3 /) sonorous, consonant, soft, b - no sound, H - (dA) - vowel, .
- The letter I corresponds to two sounds (JA).
- 6 letters, 6 sounds.
II. 1. Chowder.
2. In the bread-ka (three syllables).
3. It is transferred by syllables.
4. Under stress, the second syllable.
5. [n ^ xl / opt].
6. N - (n) consonant sound, deaf, hard, paired, O (t) - unstressed vowel, X - consonant, deaf, unpaired, A- (N) consonant, sonorous sound, sonorous, soft, E - (O) - percussion vowel, B - (P) consonant, hard, deaf, doubled sound, A- (A) - unstressed vowel.
7. The letter B in this word is heard as a deaf sound (P).
8. 8 sounds and 8 letters.
III. The word "him" during the analysis presents certain difficulties.
- E-go (two syllables).
- It is not translated by syllables.
- Shock second syllable.
- J is an absolutely unpaired consonant, E (II) is an unstressed vowel, G (B) is a paired solid and voiced consonant, O (O) is a vowel sound under stress.
- The letter G is heard as a deaf letter B.
- 4 sounds, 3 letters.
When phonetic analysis is carried out,To pay attention to pinching and unpaired consonants, as they represent difficulties. After all, consonants are paired in softness and deafness, in hardness and voiced. And all these nuances must be taken into account.
For example, the word "mouse":
- 1 syllable.
- Not tolerated.
- One syllable.
- M - solid, consonant, unpaired sonorous, Y - stressed vowel, W - consonant, hard, hissing.
- 3 sounds and 4 letters.
Phonetic analysis of the sentence is best to begin with the pronunciation of it aloud.
1. Then you need to do a transcription of each word.
2. Indicate how many sounds and letters there are in each word.
3. Write out all the letters, and next to indicate the sounds in parentheses. The exception is made by the letters b and b, for them a dash is placed.
4. Characterize each sound separately in detail.
Phonetic analysis is so complex that it is necessary to take into account many nuances in each case. I will explain two examples:
- The letter b has no sound, but in the word it canto give softness to the previous consonant (friends) or to be spelled only spontaneously, and phonetically not to be taken into account (the mouse), because the sound of Sh in this word is solid.
- There are unpaired consonants - Ц, Щ, Й, Ч, which are unpaired absolutely in all respects, and this must be remembered.
And the other consonants are counted in pairs bysoftness and hardness or by voicing and deafness. F - paired, sonorous and firm, unpaired, consonant (horror), L and M - paired, solid, unpaired, sonorous (camp).