Methods of spreading seeds help
Methods of spreading seeds help
- At the beginning of the XX century. Swedish botanist R. Sernander gave to any parts of plants with the help of which they are able to settle the common name of diasporas. As diasporas, seeds, fruits, fertilizers, parts of the vegetative body and even whole plants can act. The main types of diaspora in seed plants are fruits and seeds, in lower and higher spore plants, spores.
There are two main ways of spreading diasporas. One is by the mechanisms developed in the process of evolution by the plant itself, the other by means of various external agents - wind, water, animals, man, etc. The first type is called autochoria, the second - allochori. Plants are called autohores and allochors, respectively.
Fruits and seeds of autochthons scatter relatively near the parent plant, usually not more than a few meters from it. A group of autochthonous plants is divided into mechanochores and barochores.
The fruits of many mechanochores are opened through nests or leaflets, and seeds from them are spilled out. This is the case with the violet tricolor (Viola tricolor), the species of the tulip (Tulipa), etc. Some mechanochhors actively scatter seeds through special adaptations in fruits, which are based on the increased osmotic pressure of the cells of the underlying tissue. The most common plants of this kind are the Impatiens nolitangere, the ecculium springy, or the rabid cucumber (Ecballium elaterium). For small distances, the fruits of some clovers falling to the ground may be "crawled" due to the hygroscopic movements of the calyx teeth attached to the fetus.
Barohores include plants that have heavy fruits and seeds. These include acorns of oak (Quercus), fruits of walnut (Juglans regia), seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hyppocastanum). These seeds are showered from the mother plant and are in close proximity to their parents.
The group of autohores also includes geocarpal plants. In geocarpic species, fruits are introduced into the soil in the process of development and mature there. The most famous of them is groundnut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea).
There are four main ways of allochori. This anemochory, zoohoriya, hydrochoria and anthropochoria.
The seeds of anemochores are transported by the movement of air. Non-opening fruits of anemochores are characterized by a variety of flying devices: flying, lionfish, etc. A classic example of plants bearing fruits is the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Its fruits are able to fly through the air for considerable distances. The winged fruits of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and the Platanoid maple (Acer platanoides), detached from the mother plant, can be planned for several tens of meters. The wing, which originated from the bract and bearing the whole stem, is linden (Tilia).
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- Diaspora or propagula (from the Greek diaspeiro scatter, spread) part of the plant, naturally separating from it and serving for reproduction
There are two main ways of spreading diasporas. One is by the mechanisms developed in the process of evolution by the plant itself, the other by means of various external agents - wind, water, animals, man, etc. The first type is called autochoria, the second is called allocharia
Plants are called autohores and allochors, respectively.
Autochory - spontaneous shedding of seeds and fruits under the influence of gravity. Fruits and seeds of autochthons scatter relatively near the parent plant, usually not more than a few meters from it. A group of autochthonous plants is divided into mechanochores and barochores.
Allochoria the spread of plants with the help of various external factors: human (anthropochoria), animals (zoochory), wind (anemochory), water (hydrochoria).
- 1. Carried by the wind.
2. when they cling to the animal's wool, and they carry them to the new territory
- 1. Wind-borne
2. when they cling to the wool of animals, and they are transferred to a new place