Mainland Eurasia. Mountains: description and features
The continent of Eurasia has a rather complex structure. Its relief is boundless plains and huge mountain belts. It is this factor, or rather, the feature of location, that distinguishes it from other continents. The mountains in Eurasia are in the depths of the continent, thereby forming a unique place for unifying the two largest belts - the Pacific and the Alibe-Himalayan.
The relief of the continent is quite diverse, sinceits formation has been going on for several eras. Therefore, studying the mountains, you can distinguish significant differences in shape and height. The Himalayas, the Caucasus, the Crimean, and the Carpathians are considered relatively young. Basically, they have sharp peaks and steep slopes. Their height and power amaze with their splendor.
Getting to know the mainland
Eurasia by area is the largestthe mainland on planet Earth. It occupies about 54 million square kilometers. Basically, there is a continent in the northern hemisphere, and only some of the islands are in the southern hemisphere. The continent unites two significant parts of the world: Europe and Asia. The mountains of Eurasia, in particular the Urals, as well as the Ural, Emba, Manych, Kuma rivers, the Black and Caspian Seas are the border between them.
It is worth noting that this continent is the only one that is washed by all four oceans:
- North-Arctic in the north.
- Indian in the south.
- Quiet in the east.
- Atlantic in the west.
Features of the relief
Eurasia is a continent with a diverse relief. It is home to the world's largest mountains and plains. It is also worth noting that from other continents it is distinguished by a height of 850 m. Some scientists claim that the ice cover of Antarctica is much larger. If to count the bedrock, then its indicators are the smallest.
On the territory of Eurasia there are severalactive volcanoes, they are located in the Kamchatka region, Southeast Asia, Iceland. The height of the continent is mainly due to the presence of mountain systems. They stretch across the continent, occupying 60% of its land area.
The main and highest mountains of Eurasia
- Tien Shan, whose height - 3 thousand meters, in translation means "heavenly body."
- The Hindu Kush is included with the Alpine-Himalayan system, the height of the peaks ranges from 4 thousand m to 6 thousand m.
- Karakorum, the main peak - Dapsang, reaches 8.5 thousand meters.
- The Caucasian mountain system in translation means "snow-white mountain", the highest peak is Elbrus, its height is 5.6 thousand meters.
- Alps - a large mountain belt, the city of Mont Blanc reaches almost 5 thousand meters.
- Himalayas, the highest point is Mount Jomolungma, or Mount Everest (more than 8.8 thousand meters).
Himalayan mountain system: description
The Himalayas are recognized as the highest mountain belt on the wholeplanet Earth. These mountains on the continent of Eurasia are located between the Indo-Ghanaian Plain and the Tibetan upland. Their peaks are always covered with snow cover. It is this factor that influenced the name of the mountain system, in translation from the Scandinavian language it means "abode of snows". The length of the Himalayas reaches 3 thousand km, and its width is about 400 km. The total area of the mountain system is 650 thousand km. Most of the peaks are 6 thousand meters high, but there are 10 ridges that exceed the mark of 8 thousand meters. It is this system that belongs to the famous mountain Everest, which rises almost 9,000 meters above sea level.
The southern slopes of the Himalayas are under the influence ofmonsoon winds. But in the north, these mountains of Eurasia fall into the continental climate belt, with cold temperatures and a low amount of precipitation prevailing here. Summer time in the southern part is a rainy season, they are quite plentiful. Snow in the Himalayas lies all year round, high in the mountains the temperature can vary from -25 to -400C. Here you can constantly watch the hurricanes, the speed of which sometimes reaches 150 km / h. The probability of rapid weather changes is not excluded.
Vegetation in the Himalayas is distributed according totiers. Here there are deciduous and coniferous forests and meadows. Also, the world of evergreen tropical plants is widely represented. In the north, the flora is scarcer, semi-deserts and steppes predominate. At an altitude of 2 km, you can find such trees as maples, oaks, chestnuts, and a little higher - cedars and pines. But already at the mark of 4 km grow more mosses and shrubs. The mountains of Eurasia at an altitude of 5 km have no vegetation, since at this level the zone of eternal snows begins.
In the meadows you can find a rhino of Indian andsnow leopard. In the tropical zone, the animal world is quite diverse. These are mammals, insects, and reptiles. In the north, bears, antelopes, and musk deer are more common. And also in the steppe zone you can see grazing wild rams, horses, goats.
The largest continent on the planet is Eurasia. The mountains (the most significant), lakes and seas are located here. On the continent, many different climatic zones are united: from hot southern to cold northern lands. An interesting fact is that it is in Eurasia that the lowest point of land (Dead Sea) and the pole of the northern hemisphere with a critically cold temperature are located.