Lecture 1. Brief summary. Human Aspects
Anthropological and ascetic aspects of human creation
Man is created by God in the second half of the sixth day of creation. TThe thief of man is not singled out on a separate day, and the creation of the animal world is divided into two. Until now, the creation took place as follows: on every creative day ̶ a huge creative period, God utters his energetic word. It is as if in nature, created by God, there are certain possibilities, so that when the word of God acts on them, some processes take place in them. At the end of each day, God looks at the result and says, "Good." Approval in such cases means, perhaps in some already Christian, moral aspect, the joy of God from creation. God approves of all of these things created as a part of the future plan.
When all this is created, there is no explanation. When it is said that the luminaries are created for counting day and night, for the sign of the times, we immediately ask ourselves: who will count this time.
In the afternoon of the sixth day, the Lord acts differently.He gathers inside himself, and as if to himself says: “Let us make man.” Some of the Fathers of the Church, following the ancient Judean interpreters, perceived this as a creation of God and a conversation of God with angels.
In the light of Christian knowledge, the Christian view of the beginning of the creation of the world, we conclude that here is the eternal advice of God in itself, inter-constitutional advice.
Only about man is said, not just by the word of God, but “in our image and in our likeness.”
In terms of meaning, the story of a person in the first and second chapters is different. In the first chapter, a person is shown as a natural result, the crown of God's creation. The second chapter speaks more about man as an employee of God, that is, he is not just a creature created by God for specific purposes, he is the one to whom he will be given. This is a completely different aspect.
God not only creates man, not only gives certain commandments, already known in the animal world, but also gives him commandments of power and interrelations with the previous creation.
Image and likeness
These words in the Hebrew language do not have any significant differences. Unfortunately, many Christians still say that man was created in the image and likeness of God.God said to himself: "... we will make man in the image and likeness," but through the sentence: "... and God created man in his own image."
God intended to create man in the image and likeness, but created only in the image. This gave reason in Christian theology to distinguish between these concepts. Distinguish by right the already Christian approach to the meaning of the creation of man.
The image of God in man means those aspects that can be described as features of the reflection of the Divine in man, some initial Divine potential, the original Divine reality.
To understand what the image of God is in man, one must look at how a person differs from an animal.
The “living soul” in Hebrew is not a definition, but a characteristic of living biological life, the presence of vital force in the body. Man also has a living soul.
“And the Lord God created man from the dust of the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul soul” (Genesis, 2.7).
Man does not begin to live by the word of God, but after this dust, earth, set of chemical elements are breathed into the spirit, the breath of life. And here, in the Hebrew original, the word “Ruach” is used, which in the Scripture meansthe spirit of God, the breath of God, the breath of eternal. The same word, by the way, meant in the Hebrew writingswind. The ancient Jews believed that the spirit of God could be described as the wind that brings with it coolness.
So, the image of God - this is what distinguishes man over the animal world, which is called the spirituality of man.The point here is that consciousness is not a distinctive feature of man from an animal, since many animals are conscious and can often serve God's providence.
Man has self-awareness and self-knowledge. The knowledge of oneself, the meaning of life, the history of mankind, one's place in history, the knowledge of global problems is a feature of human consciousness, unlike the consciousness of an animal.
Aristotle said: "Man is a social animal." Man is a religious animal, in the sense of God's living being.There have never been the first non-religious communities on earth. There were periods of human falling away from God, but as soon as a man appears on earth, a sign of his religiosity immediately appears.The most ancient sign in all excavations is пог symbolically decorated burial, where there are clear signs of faith in the resurrection and in the hereafter.
Among the features of the image of God in man can be distinguished: prayer, the ability of man to repentance and the inner sense of the immortality of the spirit. That is why a person in times of crisis of faith feels his two-dimensionality, like his being in two worlds. The body is mortal, the soul is immortal.
How does a person fundamentally differ from everything on earth? He has free will. Human morality is a derivative of free will. A person's ability to choose between good and evil is determined by the gift of free will given to him.
Creativity is also a feature of the image of God in man.Today, man is a fallen creator, and therefore we often criticize the creations of human hands and the human mind, but the very ability to create is given to man from God, as is the ability to cognize.
The personality of a person as a result of the personality of God
Aesthetic evaluation of the world.A person evaluates the world on the basis of the criteria of beauty, we are talking about moral actions, it is beautiful or ugly from a moral point of view. The very concept of beauty is very deep, not only purely aesthetic, but also emanating from the interconnection of the revelation of God in man.God is known not only as intelligent, not only as good, but also as beautiful.
Man in the likeness is not created, so, based on further biblical logic, the man is called to this likeness. And therefore, likeness is understood as likening to God.
In the New Testament, the Lord says in the Sermon on the Mount: "Be perfect as your Heavenly Father is perfect." Our heavenly Father is perfect infinitely. A similar commandment, a similar call, is a call to endless improvement. This is not just a cultivation, but an entry into the Divine life.
After Christ, who died and was resurrected for us, but uniting Divine and human nature before his death, and after the resurrection and the creation of the Church, he united us to his God-manhood, the formulas used by saints Irenaeus of Lyons and Athanasius of Alexandria are fair: “God became man with a capital letter so that a person with a small letter becomes a god with a small letter. ” This is how the concept of deification arises in Christian theology.
Antioch and Alexandrian approaches to the idea of deification: the idea of moral assimilation to God, and anthological deification, that is, the involvement of the real person in the Divine life
Man is given the commandment to multiply and multiply. Approximately until the end of the 19th century, including in the catechism of St. Metropolitan Philaret and in the dogma of Metropolitan Macarius (Bulgakov), it was usually about establishing marriage in paradise that it was a union blessed by God, a union of a man and a woman to continue the race. And the link was usually just two quotes: 2.24 and 1.28.
Professor Troitsky came to the conclusion that the phrase “be fruitful and multiply” in the first chapter in verse 28 has nothing to do with marriage.
In the commandmentsbe fruitful and multiplyman is an animal, like everything else. In the commandments following her, man is the main animal above everything. If there were no words “in the image and likeness,” “breathed the spirit,” Engels would be right that man is the highest created by God, but an animal.
In the second chapter, man is a special spiritual animal, spiritual and physical being, or divinely earthly, or immortal mortal, immortal dust, heavenly earthly. Two incommensurability live in man - the tumbling and perishable.
The final chord of paradise is given to the marriage commandment: to leave a father and a mother to a person, although there is still no father and mother, only Adam and his wife, and "cleave to his wife, and the two will be one flesh."
Marriage is a union of two different people, because Adam and his wife are different creatures in the face of God, for unity in Him and joint salvation. Marriage is a love triangle, without God marriage is not a marriage. There must be three in marriage: God, man and woman.
In the commandment “be fruitful and multiply,” where the person is also said to be an animal, in the Hebrew original there are the words “ish, isha” (male, female), not a man and a woman, but a male and a female.
That is, in the first chapter, man is chronologically the last higher being, the most powerful on earth, the wisest, the most powerful. In the second chapter it is already a divine being.
The commandment of the second chapter on marriage, imposed on the commandment “be fruitful and multiply,” considering that man was created in the image of God and carries the calling to be a little creator, means that for man “be fruitful and multiply” is not a commandment of biological reproduction, because he creates immortal people.It means that this is the commandment of multiplication or the creation of Divine animals, the commandment of the creation of new human personalities, cooperation with God.