Interesting chemical experiments that can be easily repeated at home
The chemist is a very interesting and multifaceted profession, uniting many different specialists under its wing: chemical scientists, chemical technologists, chemical analysts, petrochemists, chemistry teachers, pharmacists and many others. Together with them, we decided to celebrate the upcoming Day of the Chemist 2017, so we chose several interesting and impressive experiments in this area that can be repeated even by those who are as far from the chemist's profession as possible. The best chemical experiments at home - read, watch and remember!
When Chemist's Day is celebrated
Before we begin to consider our chemical experiments, let us clarify that traditionally the Day of the chemist is celebrated on the territory of the post-Soviet states at the very end of spring, namely, on the last Sunday of May.This means that the date is not fixed: for example, in 2017, the Day of the chemist is celebrated on May 28th. And if you work in the chemical industry, or are studying a specialty from this area, or are somehow otherwise directly connected with chemistry on duty, then you have every right to join the celebration on this day.
Chemical experiments at home
And now we proceed to the main point, and begin to perform interesting chemical experiments: the best thing to do is with young children, who will accurately perceive what is happening as a magic trick. And we tried to pick up such chemical experiments, reagents to which can be easily obtained in a pharmacy or store.
Experience number 1 - Chemical traffic lights
Let's start with a very simple and beautiful experience, which received such a name by no means in vain, because the liquid participating in the experiment will change its color just to the colors of a traffic light - red, yellow and green.
You will need:
- indigo carmine;
- caustic soda;
- 2 transparent glass containers.
Let the names of some ingredients do not scare you - glucose tablets can be easily bought at the pharmacy, indigo carmine is sold in stores as a food coloring, and you will find caustic soda at the hardware store.Capacities are better to take high, with a wide base and narrower neck, for example, flasks, so that they are more convenient to shake.
- Add approximately 10 ml of caustic soda solution to it, diluting it in water and mixing. This soda is very caustic, so be sure to use rubber gloves and goggles so as not to get burned! If you conduct chemical experiments at home with children, do this part of the experience yourself, and let the kids just watch you.
- Pour hot water into another container and add some indigo carmine dye. Shake to dissolve faster and give the water a rich blue color.
- We turn to the most interesting thing: we add a solution of glucose and caustic soda to a container for indigocarmine — and we see how it becomes green before our eyes. Pretty quickly, the green color changes to red, and then gradually turns yellow.
- And that's not all - now shake the flask to reverse the process.If the shake is weak, the solution will turn red again and return to yellow, and if strong, then green, then red and yellow again. And the truth - the traffic light!
But what is interesting about chemical experiments - there is an explanation for everything:
- By mixing glucose with caustic soda, i.e. sodium hydroxide, we obtained an alkaline glucose solution. Then, mixing it with a solution of indigo carmine, we oxidize the liquid with oxygen, with which it was saturated during the transfer from the flask - this is the reason for the appearance of the green color. Then, glucose begins to work as a reducing agent, gradually changing its color to yellow. But by shaking the flask, we again saturate the liquid with oxygen, allowing the chemical reaction to pass this circle anew.
About how interesting it looks live, you get an idea from this short video:
Test 2 - Universal indicator of acidity from cabbage
Children adore interesting chemical experiments with colored liquids, this is not a secret. But we, as adults, responsibly declare that such chemical experiments look very spectacular and curious. Therefore, we advise you to spend at home another “color” experience - a demonstration of the amazing properties of red cabbage.It, like many other vegetables and fruits, contains anthocyanins - natural indicator dyes that change color depending on the pH level - i.e. degree of acidity of the medium. This property of cabbage will be useful to us in order to get further multicolored solutions.
What we need:
- 1/4 of red cabbage;
- lemon juice;
- baking soda solution;
- sugar solution;
- sprite drink;
- 8 flasks or glasses.
Many of the substances on this list are quite dangerous, so use caution when performing simple chemical experiments at home, wear gloves, and if possible protective glasses. And do not let children get too close - they can knock over the reagents or the final contents of the colored cones, even want to try them, which cannot be allowed.
- Strain the colored water with cabbage - through a coffee filter, for example, or through a strainer.So we got a universal cabbage indicator of blue-violet color.
- In 8 glasses we place our reagents: bleach, soda, disinfector, sugar, water, Sprite, vinegar and lemon juice.
- And, finally, we begin to add cabbage juice to each glass. In the glass with each of the substances, the contents will acquire a different color, respectively: yellow; dark green; turquoise blue; blue, violet blue, hot pink, dark red and bright red (see photo below). It turns out that the highest pH level, that is, the most acidic medium, is in a glass with lemon juice, and the lowest pH level is in a glass with bleach. In the glass with water, the color did not change, but only slightly turned pale after it was diluted - this means that the water has a neutral pH level.
And how do these chemical experiments explain color changes?
- The fact is that all the objects that we see, the light falls - and it contains all the colors of the rainbow. In addition, each color in the beam of the spectrum has its own wavelength, and molecules of different shapes, in turn, reflect and absorb these waves. The wave that is reflected from the molecule is the one we see, and this determines what color we perceive - because other waves are simply absorbed.And depending on what substance we add to the indicator, it begins to reflect only rays of a certain color. Nothing complicated!
A slightly different version of this chemical experience, with fewer reagents, see in the video:
Experience number 3 - Dancing jelly worms
We continue to do chemical experiments at home - and we will conduct the third experiment on all of our favorite jelly candies in the form of worms. Even to adults it will seem funny, and children will be completely delighted.
Take the following ingredients:
- a handful of jelly worms;
- acetic essence;
- ordinary water;
- baking soda;
- glasses - 2 pcs.
Choosing the right candy, stop at the smooth, sticky worms, without sugar sprinkling. So that they are not heavy and easier to move, cut each candy length into two halves. So, we start interesting chemical experiments:
- Make a solution of warm water and 3 tablespoons of soda in one glass.
- Put the worms there and hold them there for about fifteen minutes.
- Another deep glass fill with essence. Now you can slowly throw jelly in vinegar, watching as they begin to move up and down, which in some way resembles a dance:
Why it happens?
- Everything is simple: baking soda, in which the worms are soaked for a quarter of an hour, is sodium bicarbonate, and the essence is an 80% solution of acetic acid. When they react, water, carbon dioxide in the form of small bubbles and sodium salt of acetic acid are formed. It is with carbon dioxide in the form of bubbles that a worm clutters, rises up, and then descends when they burst. But the process is still ongoing, forcing the candy to rise on the bubbles formed and descend until its completion.
And if you are seriously interested in chemistry, and you want the future to become the Day of the Chemist and your professional holiday, then you probably will be curious to watch the following video, which tells in detail about the typical everyday life of chemical students and their fascinating educational and scientific activities:Related article: Cool science experiments worth showing to kids!