How to learn to draw with a pencil: help for beginners
Drawing is at least a great hobby for creative people. Many believe that you need to have some special talent, when, in fact, everyone can learn to draw - with a certain perseverance and systematic practice. We will help you figure out how to learn to draw with a pencil and what beginners need to know about this lesson.
You must have a set of simple pencils. They are denoted by the letters H (T in Russian marking) - hard pencil, B (M) - soft, and a letter is put before the letter, which indicates the degree of hardness or softness, for example, 2B.
Beginners should start with a HB pencil (TM) - this is a standard pencil, of a moderate degree of hardness-softness. When you get used to it, it will be easier to control the force of pressure when using other types of pencils.
Take white and dense paper, best of all grainy - pencil shades will be clearly visible on it.If possible, buy one sheet of paper for testing and rub it with an eraser - if it immediately becomes loose with the pellets, then the quality of such paper leaves much to be desired.
Do not forget to take a good eraser to correct future blots. Choose a soft eraser so as not to hurt the paper when erasing.
Where to begin
First of all, you need to get acquainted with the basic principles of drawing: composition, volume, perspective, dynamics. These basics apply to any style, not just pencil drawings.
After that, it is worth deciding what exactly you are striving to learn and how you want to draw, what style to choose. Even if you want to be able to do everything a little, stop first on something concrete and do not try to embrace the immense - master one style, and then move on to another.
If you want to learn how to draw portraits, you will have to learn the basics of anatomy, the proportions of a human face and body. To learn how to draw landscapes, you need to practice drawing natural objects - plants, mountains, sea waves, etc. If you want to draw anime, then you need to know the features of drawing characters in this genre.
From simple to complex
You must learn to draw geometric shapes in two-dimensional, and after - in three-dimensional space. This will be a very important stage of your practice, because, in fact, all the objects and even ourselves conditionally consist of different geometric shapes. And when you first learn to draw objects and people, and even gain experience, you will still throw circles, ovals, and squares on paper, indicating the proportions of the objects being drawn.
Draw a lot of simple objects, animals in a simplified form. Do not dismiss drawing objects that are boring at first sight, such as a cup, alarm clock or an apple on the table - even a simple two-dimensional outline drawing will require some skill from you.
Let's try a little practice right now and draw a cute mouse.
1. Take a soft pencil and draw two ovals next to each other, with a small intersection. One of them will be smaller - this is the future mouse head, and the second will become the body.
2. Draw circles in place of the ears, outline the paws and mark the tail that bends.
3. Now let's draw a little face mouse - an eye in the shape of an inverted droplet, a nose with a ball, a smile, and also don't forget to draw ears.
4. Erase the inner contours on the face and make a more saturated stroke.Decorate the pupil and nose in black, with a white highlight in the middle.
5. Draw the paws to the mouse and shape the tail, erasing the auxiliary contours along the body. Circle the rest of the mouse.
After two-dimensional images proceed to the development of three-dimensional, with the transfer of volume. Studying chiaroscuro, start with a classic task - draw a ball with a falling shadow. If you do not have a suitable ball at home, use a chicken egg as an object. How to perform such a pattern can be seen in the next video.
At first, it is very important to learn how to draw from life - you must develop a sense of form on real objects, observe shadows and light, and see volume.
The main principle in drawing is moving from simple to complex, from general to detail.
Do not hurry and do not expect that after a couple of lessons drawing you will be able to create brilliant paintings. Be patient: sometimes you have to learn how to draw the same figure over and over again until you achieve a decent result and only then move on to more difficult tasks, such as drawing people.
Basic pencil drawing techniques
The main techniques of drawing in pencil include feathering and shading.
At the initial stages it will be easier for you to master feathering. Although sometimes students of art schools, for example, use only hatching, and shading is considered improper technique. In any case, it will be useful to master both techniques, as they help to achieve different results in the drawing.
Shading is done by applying short, thin lines with a pencil on a piece of paper. The lines are placed at the same distance from each other. The pencil at the same time comes off the sheet: having drawn one line, you do not pull it on the paper in a zigzag to the initial position, but return it back, leaving no traces. It is important to hatch the drawing in one direction.
The degree of saturation of the tone is controlled due to the different frequency of the strokes and their direction - the strokes can be vertical, horizontal, diagonal. The increase in the color depth is achieved by using cross-strokes of different directions, for example, diagonal sticks are placed on top of vertical strokes.
There are also relief strokes - they are used for the purpose of transmitting the relief and are performed by strokes with curves, arcuate, broken, but not straight.
Through shading in pencil, they transmit both light and shade and tones, as well as various textures: backgrounds, surfaces, materials, etc.
The technique of hatching is quite difficult for beginners and requires a large amount of training. Most likely, it will take a long time before you can develop your own hatching style. Therefore, for beginners, a shading technique will help, which will help correct flaws in shading if necessary.
It is with the help of shading to achieve realistic images with a smooth gradation of tone.
It is carried out as follows: shading lines are applied to the paper with a pencil, and then rubbed with the help of a special tool - a brush, or a cotton swab, a piece of soft paper, cloth or suede. Do not shade the lines with your finger in order to avoid the appearance of greasy spots in the figure.
In fact, feathering is an optional step after hatching, but with its peculiarity: it’s better to hatch before feathering with cross zigzag lines. Do not do horizontal feathering - rubbing pencil lines should be only from top to bottom.
It is important that the shading is uniform.In extreme cases, you can lightly shade the light areas with a pencil again, and dark areas can be loosened with an eraser.
In this video you can see how to perform different types of hatching and feathering.
When the basics are learned, the pencil techniques are mastered, it remains only to practice drawing more often. Remember that practice is the key to your success.
There is a mass of benefits for beginning artists, where you will see special lessons on drawing individual objects or paintings in pencil. You can either buy these publications in a specialized store, or take lessons from the Internet. The main thing is to practice as much and often as possible. Let drawing be for you, first of all, a pleasant leisure.