Horizontal waterproofing of the foundation: features, reviews, installation technology
Any construction design requires protection fromnegative effects of moisture. To ensure that the water does not rise from the base upward along the wall, horizontal waterproofing is carried out during the construction of the structures. At the same time, the foundation is reliably protected.
Features of horizontal waterproofing
From the title it is clear that the base protection systeminvolves exposure to the horizontal plane. If everything is done correctly, the created barrier will not allow underground waters to rise upward. Especially protection is required if the groundwater level is less than a meter or less from the bottom of the basement.
In order to protect the base frommoisture, it is necessary to waterproof the plinth, and it is necessary to do this during the construction, since in the case of a functioning structure these works will be more difficult. The described work is carried out in accordance with SNiP. The horizontal waterproofing of the foundation must comply with SniP 31-02. According to these rules, membrane materials can not be used for protection. The waterproofing layer must be solid throughout the base.
If the groundwater table is high enough,The protection tab must be made one meter from the base. Primary protection, which is also called anti-filtration, is performed during the reinforcement phase of the foundation. It involves the addition of concrete compounds.
About secondary waterproofing
Secondary horizontal protection fits intothe basis for the first link. This allows you to protect the wooden walls from the capillary moisture. Perform such work should be after the maturation of the foundation, they must be carried out before laying the building material. Horizontal waterproofing of the foundation usually involves the use of roll protection by the type of ruberoid or any other material on the bitumen base.
Feedback on methods of horizontal foundation protection
The papers described in this article can beone of the existing technologies. For example, pasting waterproofing is usually used to protect wooden houses, but it can be an ideal solution for isolating the foundation for any construction.
Consumers emphasize that for this, you canuse a common roofing material, pasted on bituminous mastic. It is not advisable to use roofing felt separately, because mastic can improve the quality of the layer and increase strength. Ochnechnaya horizontal waterproofing of the foundation is the laying of the material with an overlap in two layers. According to home masters, this allows you to get a more reliable coverage.
On applied mastic, the thickness of which is 1mm, sheets of roofing material are laid, all seams need to be sealed well. Lining waterproofing involves the use of polymer materials, sprayed substances by type:
- liquid rubber;
- bituminous mastic;
One of these options is applied toThe horizontal plane is distributed over the surface. The layer will perform moisture-repelling functions and create a strong elastic and thin film. After polymerization, according to the masters, the material will be deprived of capillaries and pores, where moisture could penetrate.
The device of horizontal waterproofingthe foundation may involve the use of penetrating materials. The construction, as the domestic craftsmen emphasize, is treated with a special primer that can be sprayed. Molecules penetrate and fill the pores. As a result, it is possible to obtain an impermeable, reliable coating that is fixed inside.
Technology of mounting of roofing material
If for horizontal protection of the base youdecided to use roofing material, then with its help it will be possible to create a single, unbreakable coating. At the first stage, the walls of the foundation are marked and demarcated. A screed can be made of cement mortar.
The hardened compound is covered with bituminous mastic. The sheets of roofing material are covered with mastic and are laid on the foundation so that the material covers the surface and its sides. Horizontal waterproofing of the foundation in the next stage assumes the alignment of the canvases with the help of wooden rails. Adhesive layer should be evenly distributed over the area, it is important at the same time to exclude cavities.
Technology okleechnoy waterproofing
This technique involves a deviceleveling screed. It is made of a cement-sand mortar, to which fillers are added, which increase the watertightness of the structure. The main material at the same time, however, are rolled bitumen or polymer liners of increased mechanical strength.
Horizontal waterproofing of the foundation on the firststage is accompanied by leveling the base with a screed, the solution for which is prepared with the addition of additives. They are necessary to increase the resistance of concrete to moisture penetration. After drying of the screed, the surface is covered with a primer on bitumen or water basis, use a brush or roller for this.
The primer should be left until it dries ona few hours, then it is recommended to start applying polymer or bitumen mastic. Particular attention should be paid to structural elements by the type of seams and corners, where condensate can stagnate. Horizontal waterproofing of the foundation for this technology can provide for the application of an adhesive layer in the form of a mastic, it does not need to be dried.
Methods of work
Further, as in the above-described method,Ruberoid is laid. When pasting waterproofing, the roll material is laid on the dried mastic, and after it is ironed with a roller. The welded waterproofing is carried out using a propane torch. It will allow to heat the roll and roll it over the surface, pressing it to the base.
The installation of a roll-up waterproofing can be carried outin 3 layers. It is important to ensure that the canvas of the upper layer does not intersect in the seams of the lower one. The width of the waterproofing should be such that it overlaps the contact of walls with the foundation. If you want to waterproof the basement of the building with a basement, then the layer is laid under the basement of the basement, it needs to be located above the blind area and in the place where the socle ends. In buildings without basements, it is possible to waterproof only the foundation from the walls.
This kind of waterproofing is carried out withusing cement mortars to which modifiers are added. The latter are chemically active compounds. When in contact with concrete, they crystallize and form a waterproof solid surface layer that is resistant to the effects of erosion and chemicals.
Such horizontal waterproofing of walls fromthe foundation is quite inexpensive, but very effective, but it requires preparatory work. The surface of the substrate should be cleaned from the hard layer, remove dirt and dust, traces of paint and rust, as well as the remnants of waterproofing. With the help of hydrochloric acid, the foundation is degreased. It is important to make sure that the surface is strong enough and has open pores.
If there are protruding elements of the reinforcementmust be cleaned to a metallic luster. Seams, cracks and joints need to be expanded and cleaned. The solution is mixed with water, filler and modifiers, and then left to ripen. The surface of the basement is wetted with water, but do not be zealous.
The application of cement slurry is carried out withUsing a spatula, the composition is distributed and left until drying for a few days. At the same time, it is impossible to load the surface. Before carrying out the described work, you should select the materials. Horizontal waterproofing of the foundation, for example, can also be performed with the help of special solutions based on polymeric two-component additives. Such penetrating compositions have a low viscosity, so they penetrate into the concrete and fill the capillaries. In contact with the hardener, this waterproofing creates a waterproof layer. The spray penetrating waterproofing is usually combined with a vertical one.
This method of waterproofing is based onsaturation of concrete through drilled holes. The depth of penetration can be equal to 0.5 m. When the material contacts the moisture in the foundation, the solution begins to swell and completely closes the pores, excluding the capillary suction of moisture from the ground. If the horizontal waterproofing of the foundation by you is carried out in this way, then the walls of the base must be cleaned of the remnants of the old waterproofing and pollution.
Holes should be placed on such adistance in order to form a waterproof layer in the foundation. Drilling should be carried out to a depth that is somewhat greater than the width of the foundation. The holes should be located at a slight angle. They place the nozzles, which are necessary for the supply and distribution of the solution. To do this, low pressure pumps are needed that mix the polymer gel with the hardener before introducing it into the thickness of the structure. After curing the composition and swelling against the effects of moisture, a waterproof layer is formed.
Vertical base waterproofing
Vertical and horizontal waterproofingthe foundation is usually used in a complex. The first of these methods involves applying to the cleaned and dried surface of the base mastic. It is important to exclude the presence of dust and sand, as they will interfere with good contact.
Cleaning can be done with a vacuum cleaner, brush or car washer. Drying can be done in a natural way - under the sun's rays or by means of technical devices, namely:
- incandescent lamps;
- electric heater;
- heat guns.
After drying, the concrete is treated with a primer,which will allow the communication of fine dust particles and strengthen the surface. Primer prepares the foundation for mastic treatment. Its application should be carried out on a flat surface, therefore preliminary cavities are sealed up, and ledges - get off.
Horizontal waterproofing of the foundationroofing felt is most common, but today many other ways of protecting the foundation of buildings and structures are known. Among others, it is necessary to distinguish okleychnaya, omazochnuyu and penetrating.