General characteristics of the USA. West USA: characteristic. USA and Canada: comparative characteristics. The economic characteristics of the USA
The United States and Canada are the two states of North America. Canada is the second largest country after Russia, the United States is the fourth after China. Despite the neighborhood, these countries are very unlike each other. Although the United States is considered the world economy leader, the standard of living in America is lower than in its northern neighbor. The states in this ranking occupy 11th place, while Canada - 6th. Will help to understand the reasons for this characteristic of the United States. After all, the overall rating takes into account not only the level of the economy, but also the percentage of employed people, other indicators.
Economic-geographical description of the USA
The rating of the largest countries in the world allocates to the 4 thplace (9.5 million sq. km.) Geographical position is very advantageous, the state occupies the main part of the continent. Brega USA is washed by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This contributes to the development of trade with other countries while protecting against international conflicts. The USA neighbors with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. Isolated from the mainland Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands. Through the Bering Strait, the state borders on Russia.
The United States is a federal republic. At the head of the state is the president, elected for 4 years. The highest legislative body is the Congress, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The country consists of 50 states and a separate federal district of Columbia, where the capital is located - Washington.
The population of the USA
On the territory of the state, only about325 million people. The main part of the population consists of immigrants from other countries. Indigenous people - Indians and Eskimos (in Alaska) - it's only 0.4% of the total population. In the US, you can meet representatives of all races. The national composition is very diverse, which is explained by the history of the state. After the discovery of the continent, settlers from Europe flocked here: the British, the Irish, the French, the Dutch, and others. Later, the colonialists brought Negro slaves from Africa to work on the plantations.
After the Second World War, there was aa massive migration of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans from Latin America. The modern American nation is the result of ethnic mixing of all immigrants. At the census, the US population is divided into the following groups:
- white - 79%;
- African Americans - 12%;
- Asians-Mongoloids - 4,4%.
Hispanics are not singled out as a separate line, because they belong to different groups. The number of speakers of the Spanish language is 16% of the total population.
General characteristics of the United States as the world economy leader
The United States occupies a leading position in theworld in terms of industrial production. Therefore, the general characteristics of the US as a state can not do without economic indicators. The country occupies leading roles in many branches. It accounts for 75% of the aviation, rocket and space industries, 65% of the electronic computing, and about 30% of the grain harvest. The economic characteristics of the United States provide an understanding that the state is leading in productivity of labor, in science-intensive technologies. The country's leadership has a significant influence on the development of this or the area of the economy, the location of production, its structure. Methods for this are used very differently - from the introduction of tax incentives to subsidizing entire industries. However, such a medal has a downside. Increasingly, economic crises are making themselves felt. Unjustified loans are the cause of rising inflation, which is shaking the economy. Characteristic areas of the United States is to consider each of them. Differences between them are essential. Allocate the following areas:
- West of the USA.
Characteristics of the latter area is most interesting, because it is only developing.
US economic areas
Each of the macroregions of the country has its own specifics. The regional characteristics of the United States depend on the geographical location.
1. The industrial north. This region is the main focus of industry and agriculture in the country. 80% of the population lives in cities. On the coast is the largest city in the USA - New York. It is not only the largest port, the most important industrial center, but also the focus of the financial and business life of the state. In addition, New York is a cultural center, the city has the largest number of libraries, theaters, educational institutions, cinemas and museums. Most of it is on the islands. On one of them - Manhattan - business districts located in skyscrapers are concentrated. Here is the headquarters of the UN. A special role for the country's economy is played by machine-building enterprises, chemical plants, the sewing and printing industry. The characterization of the United States as the world trade leader also implies the description of the most important transport hubs. Philadelphia is another port and center of industry. Here the petrochemical and metallurgical industries, oil refining and machine building have been even more developed than in New York.
The most powerful metallurgical complex in the USAis located in the city of Baltimore. It is also the largest port and center of shipbuilding and oil refining. Another of the most important cities providing transport function is Chicago. It not only serves ocean vessels, but it is also the starting point for 30 railways. In the industry, ferrous metallurgy, the production of electrical equipment, and the food industry are of particular importance. Another American city - Detroit - is famous for its automobile industry. It was here that Henry Ford built the first plant. Now there are a lot of them. And other plants that produce associated equipment were built nearby. The agro-industrial characteristics of the United States make it possible to give the palm to the North in agriculture. In this economic region, half of the country's agricultural output is produced. Here are concentrated enterprises and crop production, and livestock.
2. The South of the USA. This economic region is called the former slave-owning South. The economic characteristics of the United States as an important producer of cotton refers to this region of the country. For 150 years on the plantations slaves were engaged in the cultivation of cotton. The South of the USA was an agrarian appendage of the country, a supplier of raw materials.
He was considered the poorest region. But recently the situation is changing. The areas of cotton plantations have significantly decreased, agriculture has become more developed and diverse. 90% of tobacco products and fabrics are produced here. In the south, the country produces the most oil, natural gas, coal, phosphates. The South can be called multifaceted without exaggeration. This is the place where the famous Marlboro cigarettes are still produced, and the broiler chicken breeding center, and traditional cotton production is also located here. It is here that the sunny state of Florida, and Miami resorts are visited by millions of tourists. The main US spaceport - Canaveral - also in the south. Thanks to the oil fever, super-modern cities - Houston and Dallas - have grown rapidly. Now it is the main center of the aerospace industry.
West. Characteristics of the United States on the plan for describing the economy can relate the west of the country to the youngest and fastest growing region. In addition, it is also the largest of the districts. Therefore, the contrasts here are most noticeable. Here the highest mountains in the country, the deepest canyons, the vast desert areas in Arizona, the richest soils in the valleys. Before the Second World War, the specialization of the economy was in the extractive industry and animal husbandry. After that, other areas of the economy began to develop rapidly. Now the West of the USA occupies a special place in the life of the state. The characteristics of its economic sectors provide an understanding that the potential of the region is still being revealed. Here are Solar California, the famous Silicon Valley, Alaska and Hawaii.
Economic and geographical position of Canada
Canada is located in the northern part of the NorthAmerica and occupies a huge territory - almost 10 million square meters. km. This is 1/12 of the whole land. It is washed by the waters of three oceans - the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic. The coastline of Canada is recognized as the longest in the world. And the land border with the United States is the longest unprotected border of the world. In the north, Canada is neighboring with Russia. And as a border, there is a material point - the North Pole. The vast territory of Canada is located beyond the Arctic Circle, but the main population lives in the southern regions, next to the neighbor is the United States. In addition to the mainland, the country of the maple leaf has many large and small islands in the oceans - Newfoundland, Victoria, Devon, Baffin Island and others.
The political structure of Canada
It consists of 10 provinces and 2 federalterritory. The form of government in Canada is a constitutional monarchy. Legislative power is represented by a bicameral parliament - the Senate and the House of Commons. The government of the country is formed by the prime minister, who is elected by the majority in the House of Commons.
Population of Canada
Aborigines living in this country make upA small percentage of the total population, and they were pushed to the north of the territory. The overwhelming majority of the population are descendants of either immigrants from Europe or colonists. Canada continues its traditions: the country has the most favorable conditions for emigrants. In total, 30 million people live on the territory of the state. Canada is a mystery country. Despite the crisis and the difficult economic situation in the world, it manages to achieve the highest employment rates of the population and continue to receive immigrants from other countries. Most of the inhabitants of the country are Christians. The population is very unevenly distributed. The north of the country is practically not inhabited, while in the south 90% of the inhabitants live. The official languages in Canada are 2 - English and French.
Climate, flora and fauna of Canada
Because of the country's long climate,It varies from polar in the north to tropical in the south. Temperatures beyond the polar circle rarely rise above 0 degrees. The winter of Canada is long and frosty. This is facilitated by the movement of cold air masses from the North Pole, they reach far into the interior of the continent. Deep into the mainland is the cold Hudson Bay, which is practically covered with ice almost all year round. In the east, this northern country is washed by the cold Labrador Current. In Canada there are more rivers and lakes than anywhere else. They give a huge amount of water energy. There are huge reserves of wood, only in Russia and Brazil. The most valuable breeds are white and black spruce, red cedar, yellow birch, oak and, of course, cedar. In the south, vast areas of fertile land. There are many fish in the coastal waters, salmonids are of particular importance.
It is concentrated in the continental partstate and specializes in the production and export of grain crops - wheat, corn, and potatoes. In the coastal zone, fisheries are widely developed. Canada is the main exporter of agricultural products. It meets its needs completely and more than half of its products are supplied to other countries.
Large areas of the country contributed to the development of all modes of transport.
- Railway. The length of railways is greater only in Russia and the United States.
- Automotive. For internal communications, roads are well functioning in the country, of which Canada is second only to the United States.
- Aviation transport. Huge distances within the country, a sharp change of climate, peculiarities of the terrain have caused the development of air communication not only in the international format, but also inside the country.
- Water. Very well developed is the internal communication and delivery of goods on water - forests and grains.
USA and Canada. Characteristic
Two neighboring countries are interesting to compare by main indicators. The comparative characteristics of the United States and its northern neighbor are presented in the table.
|Area, million square meters. km||9.5||10|
|Form of government||federal Republic||a constitutional monarchy|
|Population, million people||323||31|
|average life expectancy||78.1||80.5|
|Official language||English||English French|
|Currency||American dollar||canadian dollar|
|Border by land||Canada, Mexico||USA|
|Exit to the oceans||Pacific, Atlantic||Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic|
|Exit to the sea||Bering, Beaufort, the Gulf of Mexico||Labrador, Baffin, Beaufort, St. Lawrence Bay, Hudson Bay|
We have proposed a full description of the United States. The table above gives an idea of the differences and similarities between the States and Canada. Hundreds of thousands of people come to the United States in pursuit of the "American dream," someone finds happiness in Canada. After all, any characteristics of countries give only a general idea of them.