Executable files have an extension of what type? The most common
Any user of a computer system, one way or another,I encountered the notion of an executable program file. And not always (albeit very often) executable files have the EXE extension, common for Windows-systems. To understand the issue of extensions, let's consider general information about such objects and some of their main types.
Differences between executable files and other objects
Before asserting that the executable file of the program has an extension of only one particular type, it is necessary to understand how to distinguish such an object from others.
In fact, among the main differences between executable files and other information data, there are several main ones:
- the extension itself, indicating the contents in the file of either the machine or the bytecode of the virtual machine;
- signature (contents in the form of unique byte-sequences);
- attributes in the file system (execute, etc.).
Unfortunately, even if you know that the executablesfiles have a name extension, for example, EXE, you will not be able to see the contents by normal means, because such objects have compiled content that is displayed as a meaningless set of characters when viewed. At best, you'll have to use the Disassembler or something else to decompile. But now it's not about that.
Structure of executable files
As for the construction of files of this type, as a rule, they contain headers (supposed execution of instructions, parameters, code formats), instructions themselves (machine, source or bytecodes).
Sometimes the structure may include descriptionsenvironment, data for debugging, OS requirements, lists of companion libraries, images, sound, graphics, icons of shortcuts, etc. By the way, many people probably noticed that most of them have an icon in each operating system (under the condition that he must work from the start).
Principle of operation
Actually, despite the fact that executable files have an extension of different types, they work in a similar way.
At startup, the executable file is loaded into memorycomputer. In this case, the environment is initialized and configured, additional libraries are "pulled up", if the application provides such functions, configures some additional operations, and executes instructions in the manner prescribed in the file.
What extension have executable program files?
Now we come directly to the questionextensions. It goes without saying that absolutely everything will not work (it will take too much time). On the other hand, you can note the most popular and most common.
So, depending on the content type andan extension is specified. For example, in Windows the most common executable files have the EXE extension. This applies to all programs designed to work in the environment of these operating systems. Such objects contain machine codes. Very similar (also with the content of such codes) are BIN files.
Another type of executable is batch objects such as CMD, BAT, and COM, with the first type being a Windows batch file, and the second type being a DOS file system.
Probably, many met and files MSI and MSU. It can be either a "native" Windows installer or an installer of system updates.
Among other things, a separate categorymake scripts and macros (VB, VBS, VBE, SCR, JS, JSE). More often there are files like JAR and JAD, designed to install applications on mobile gadgets or use in a JAVA environment. All such objects in the content have no machine code, but virtual machine codes.
What extension have executable files on different systems?
If you look closely, you can see thatin some systems there are also quite specific components. For example, in Windows there is a special category of executable components (PS1 - executable PowerShell, PIF - information about applications, WSF - script file, etc.).
In general, in any system you can find andstandard, and special components. However, there are some common formats (for example, HTA - an executable HTML document) that work everywhere and regardless of the operating system.
As for other systems, for example, in "poppies" executable files have the extension APP, if it's programs, and PKG, if it's a distribution.
But with Linux-systems there are severalotherwise. The fact is that in them the concept of expansion does not exist as such. You can recognize the executable only by attributes (hidden, read-only, system-wide, etc.). Thus, even the problem of changing extensions fails to run or read the file you are looking for.
However, in any system or even in mobilegadgets you can find a huge number of objects of this type. It is not necessary to go far. In the same OS Android, the executable file of the installer has the APK extension, and in the "apple" devices it's IPA files.
Here in brief and everything that concerns extensionsexecutable files. Of course, in this case, the emphasis was mainly on the objects present in Windows-systems, and the rest were touched in passing and, so to speak, for overall development. And, as is already clear, the variety of objects of the executable type is so great that it is simply impossible to cite any summary table with absolutely all extensions, so we limited ourselves to the most common formats.