Didactic principles: essence, structure, content
The category of "didactic principles" is oftenis used as identical to the concept of "learning principles." However, this is not an accurate interpretation of this concept, it is necessary to make significant clarifications, without which the difference is difficult to understand.
The principles of training are the mostgeneral, fundamental provisions, in accordance with which the content of education, the system of its organization and pedagogical technologies on the basis of which pedagogical activity is built are developed.
Didactics is a special section of pedagogical science, in which the content, organization and techniques (technologies) are examined for their effectiveness in the educational process.
Basic didactic principles are designed forso that teachers and teachers can achieve the most meaningful results in training and so that learners can most effectively acquire knowledge.
Modern didactic principles determinepractically all the components and stages of the pedagogical process, express the fundamental requirements to the goals of education, its content, methods, forms and techniques of teaching.
The modern pedagogical science distinguishes the following didactic principles:
- Consciousness and activity. A principle that presupposes an organic connection and interdependence of the nature of pedagogical leadership and the level of the student's educational activity, his creative attitude to the very process of learning. Consciousness implies the student's desire to comprehend the knowledge he receives for their effective practical application, and activity in this unity is a characteristic of the student's level of independence in the comprehension and application of knowledge.
- The principle of visibility implies the followingthe rule of the teacher's support in his pedagogical activity on the direct and real views of children about the world around him. The basis of this principle is the conclusion about the varying degrees of development in people's sense organs, and as a consequence, and different perceptions of the world, which are formed through the perception of the world by feelings.
- Systematic and consistent as a principleproceeds from the fact that a person can form a truly scientific worldview in himself only when the picture of the world that he has formed in the process of learning will be integral, organic, explaining the complex interrelations and interactions of being.
- Scientific. This is the principle, according to which the content of education should be formed on the basis of really scientific knowledge, which allows us to critically comprehend the surrounding reality.
- Availability. This is the principle that requires adequate correspondence and combination in the educational process of the forms of its organization, ways of teaching individual parameters of the development of children, their age and psychophysical characteristics. The criteria for such a relationship were formulated in the Middle Ages by A. A. Komensky: from simple to complex, from known to unknown. Modern technology training, a variety of technical training tools today significantly increase the resources to ensure the availability of training.
- The principle of the organic connection of theory with practice. One of the basic in the entire didactic system, he suggests that the teaching in its ultimate goal serves the interests of socialization of the individual, forms the ability of a person to effectively adapt to the complex and dynamic processes of modern society.
- The principle of strength puts forward the requirements forthe content of education and the subjective attitude to it on the part of the student. The more interesting and more informative the educational process is organized, the stronger the motivational grounds for learning and the more knowledge acquired. In general, all the didactic principles are built on the understanding and application of such mechanisms and technologies of educational activity that are able to provide high durability of mastering.
In their totality didactic principles represent a single systemic formation, which is one of the fundamental grounds on which educational activity is built.