Convergence Theory: General Characteristics
Currently there is a large number ofpopular and well-founded psychological theories, each of which offers a special perspective on human development. In some, this process is determined by innate instincts, in others - by a social environment that gives special incentives and their reinforcements. But there is a concept in which these factors are combined - the hetotype and the social environment. This is the theory of Stern's convergence.
It is based on a number of proven statements.
1. A person is both a biological and a social being. Therefore, the genotype and environment are of equal importance in the development of the child.
2. The theory of convergence proves that only due to the merging of internal data and external conditions is a complete formation of personality. Each new growth is the result of this process.
Theory of convergence to solve the problemThe relationship between social and biological in development used a special method that was taken from comparative studies. It's about the twin method.
The fact is that there are twinsMonozygotic (with identical heredity), and also dizygotic (with different hereditary basis). Let us consider the main provisions of the application of this method in more detail.
If children of different heredity arethe same social conditions will be formed in different ways, it means that this process is determined by heredity. If practically the same, then, accordingly, the decisive role in it is assigned to the environment.
Similarly, with monozygotic twins. If they live in different families, but the development indicators will be the same, this is an indication that heredity has had a decisive role, if different, then the environment.
Theory of convergence, comparing indicatorsdifferences between DZ- and MZ-twins, developing in different and identical conditions, was able to draw a number of fundamental conclusions. They relate to the problem of the relative importance of environmental and hereditary factors, they prove precisely the leading role in their interaction.
The theory of convergence has used the features of the formation of gifted children, paying great attention to the discrepancy between the environment and genetic data.
This concept as evidenceuses examples of convergence. For example, for a child in the environment there is a large amount of material for the game. But then, when and how he will do it, depends more on the existence of the hereditary instinct of the game.
In the basis of periodization, Stern laid down the concept ofrecapitulation. Consequently, he relied on the fact that human development includes the obligatory repetition of all stages of the formation of ancestors in the process of evolution. As a result, he identified the following stages:
- From birth to six months the child is at the stage of "mammals", so his behavior is reflexive and impulsive.
- From six months to a year he passes to the stage of "monkey", when there is an active development of imitation and grasping.
- At the age of six, the child is at the stage of "primitive peoples". At this stage, speech and a vertical gait appear. Leading role in the development will play games and fairy tales.
- In elementary school, a child must master high ethical and social concepts, since this is the initial stage of active personality formation.
- On the average, the main attention should be paid to education and intellectual development. This is the age of knowledge of the foundations of all sciences.
- The last period is the stage of maturity, on which the final spiritual formation of man takes place.