Classification of cargo type vehicles
Still some hundred years ago on the car lookedas a curiosity, while for the carriage of certain goods used carts, harnessed by horses. Today, on the contrary, a modern person will look at the horse with great curiosity, sincerely not understanding how people used to live like this before? Indeed, it is impossible to imagine your life without a car, and some horses are now exclusive animals, worth an hour more expensive than any car.
By definition, a car is self-propelleda vehicle intended for the transport of people, the delivery of goods or the performance of individual operations. All cars have different classifications and functions, and are divided into freight, passenger and special. Thus, the classification of trucks is based on the following principles:
1) By destination, where the division is also carried out by cargeneral purpose and specialized. The first ones are intended for the carriage of any non-liquid cargoes (liquids are transported in special containers, and the body is a platform with sides), and the latter - for transportation of a certain type of cargo: dump trucks, cisterns, cattle, etc.
2) On the patency: in this case, the most common cars are normal patency, that is, capable of driving on asphalt roads. But there are also trucks that have high and high traffic, they are used in heavy traffic conditions.
3) The next paragraph is the classification of auto notesthe fitness of the machine to climatic conditions. Thus, trucks for temperate, hot and cold (northern) climate are produced. Note that cars for hot climate are produced on the basis of machines for the moderate.
4) By the nature of use trucks are divided into tractors and single. The tractor is also called a road train, as it is designed to transport one or more trailers with cargo.
5) Further classification of cars givencategory gives their load-carrying capacity. So, especially small are intended for transportation of cargoes in weight from 0,3 to 1 tons; small - from 1 to 3 tons; average - from 3 to 5; large - from 5 to 8; especially large - from 8 tons.
6) According to the chassis type, the machines are divided into frame andFrameless. The former include auto, where the base is a frame, to which various mechanisms and component parts are subsequently attached; on the second it is absent, and the installation is made directly to the body itself, which is considered to be bearing.
7) According to the type of engine, which are carburetor (consuming gasoline), diesel and electric (run on batteries).
For basic truck modelsspecial indices, including the designation of the manufacturer and four digits, where the first indicates the class of cars, the second - its form, and the last two (from 01 to 99) - the model number. In total, the classification of vehicles of the cargo type distinguishes seven classes, which depend on the total mass of the machine. Thus, the former includes auto-weight up to 1.2 tons; to the second - from 1.2 to 2 tons; to the third - from 2 to 8 tons; to the fourth - from 8 to 14 tons; to the fifth - from 14 to 20 tons; to the sixth - from 20 to 40 tons; to the seventh - from 40 and above.
To indicate the type of truck, the figures are also used:
- onboard - 3;
- tractor - 4;
- dumper - 5;
- tank - 6;
- van - 7;
- reserve - 8;
- special - 9.
This classification of cars helpsdetermine what kind of truck is in front of you. Consider the example: in front of your eyes a car, written as ZIL-4314. Therefore, we now know which manufacturing plant the vehicle belongs to (ZIL), and also that its mass is from 8 to 14 tons (this corresponds to the first figure 4), its platform is onboard (figure 3), and the model is the 14th. If in addition to this you will find a record of the type "6x4", this will denote the wheels (there is also a classification of cars for them), where 6 is their total number and 4 is the number of drivers.