China: a form of government. Form of government in China
The largest state in the world at the same time is also one of the oldest - according to scientists, its civilization can total about 5 thousand years, and the available written sources cover the last 3,5 thousand years. The form of government in China is a socialist people's republic.
The Age of Mao Zedong
In 1949, power in the country passed to the Communist Party. TsNPS was elected, and Mao Zedong became its chairman. In 1954, the constitution was adopted. In 1956, after the victory of Mao Zedong, the politics of the "big leap" and "communization" began, which lasted until 1966 year, after which the "1966-1976" 1966 proclaimed "cultural revolution". Its main postulate is the intensification of the class struggle and the "special path" of China.
The PRC has gone a long way, much like the history of the USSR. The reign of Mao Zedong can be compared with the Stalin period in Russia, the youth detachments of the Red Guard and the repression of the dissenters shook China. The form of government was actually a totalitarian dictatorship.
In the country then, as in the USSR in the time of Stalin, there was a cult of personality. During the life of Joseph Vissarionovich, the relations between the two states and their leaders were very friendly.
Reforms and economic growth
Two years after the death of Mao Zedong (in 1978), a new, third Constitution of the PRC was adopted, still in force, and China (the form of government in which it was replaced, in fact remaining the same externally) entered a new era. In the same year, the government declared the era of "Reform and Openness" (not particularly concerned, however, politics).
It was possible to solve the problem of nutrition, to start the development of industry and GDP growth. The welfare of the people is believed to have improved compared to previous years.
In 2012-2013, the General Secretary of the Communist Party and the president was Xi Jinping - this is the fifth generation of leaders since the establishment of the PRC.
From a historical perspective, during the familiar gap, the country passed through repeated periods of unity and decay. The monarchical form of government in Ancient China was periodically diluted by the time of fragmentation and by the existence of several kingdoms or princes, which afterwards were again united under the authority of the emperor.
Exact data concerning the earliest time - the Neolithic (12-10 thousand BC), or the Stone Age, - no. So far, only a few characters have been found on the shards of the Lunshan culture (the beginning of which scientists date approximately 3 thousand BC).
According to the Chinese tradition, then three demigods and five emperors ruled by Ancient China. The form of government, however, was not so much a monarchy as a service - the emperors defended their people and cared for it, and power was passed from the ruler to the most talented and respectable subject, and not to the blood descendant.
After the "five emperors" the C-dynasty ascended the throne, then - Shan. About the latter already have some written news, however, the existence of the C-dynasty scholars also consider it quite possible.
"It happened before..."
After the Shang Dynasty, Zhou followed. The rulers weakened, the local princes intensified. Finally, King Li overflowed the patience of his subordinates with his cruelty and was overthrown, after which for 13 years the princes ruled the country without having a single ruler. Eventually, Lee's son returned to the throne.
This time ended in a period of trouble, when there were many small independent rulers and kingdoms. The end was laid by Qin Shihuandi, uniting all under his authority and establishing a new Qin dynasty.
The new emperor managed to do a lot, but his methods of government were cruel. After his death, a civil war ensued, which resulted in the foundation in 202 n. e. new dynasty - Han.
The cycles continued with one or another variation - after the Han came the Three Kingdoms era, which ended with the appearance of the Jin Dynasty, then again came the division, the new dynasties (Sui and Tang), which replaced them with the Age of 5 dynasties and 10 kingdoms, ending with the reign of the Sun clan.
Three more dynasties were replaced, until the representatives of Qin, who ruled until the Empress Dowager in 1911, signed the abdication, rose to the throne.
The period of turmoil and unrest
After 1911 year and before the formation of the PRC, the country went through a period of turmoil and two world wars. Hyperinflation, the dominance of foreigners and the territory that was destroyed after many years of fighting - that's what China has become. The form of government to which the common people aspired was never realized - the potential president wanted to be crowned, and chaos began in the state.
However, the formation of the PRC brought order (albeit very specific). In just 60 years, the country has managed to become a leader in the production of goods and become a potential superpower with enough money for investment and assistance to the economies of other countries, as well as sufficient influence on the policies of dependent states, while remaining a socialist republic - based on recent events, the government The PRC does not want to change anything here.