Basic functions of consciousness and its structure
Often at the everyday level confuse the concept of "consciousness"and "psyche". However, the first term is already second in importance. The psychic consists of such spiritual components as the conscious and the unconscious, which are multidimensional and are in constant interaction. The functions of consciousness, first of all, are cognitive. For this reason, many modern researchers demonstrate a significant role and complex relationship of cognitive, emotional and volitional (motivational) forms of consciousness activity. However, in the inner world of man there is also the level of the unconscious or subconscious, influencing the cognitive work of thinking.
The logical structure and functions of consciousness and itsCognitive activity consists of such levels: sensitive (sensual), abstract (mental) and intuitive. They appear images, expressed in feelings and concepts. They constitute the objective and semantic basis of thinking. Together with such cognitive abilities of a person as memory and attention, conceptual thinking, to which the leading role belongs, human knowledge is provided with a meaningful and conscious character.
Difficult and relatively little research issuch functions of consciousness as sensual and emotional. In philosophy there have been many attempts to classify, typify emotions and isolate their structures, but none of them can be considered successful. When an object, reflected in human perception, acquires a form of psychological experience, excitement, we talk about emotions. To the emotional sphere of consciousness is also the sensual (grief and joy, hatred and love) and affective (anger, horror, despair).
The functions of consciousness in the motivational and volitional spheredeal with a variety of motivations, interests, needs and aspirations of the subject, and are related to the abilities and capabilities of the latter to achieve the goals. But one of the main properties of the activity of the human mind is control over this sphere of thinking. Therefore, the most important part of consciousness is self-awareness. It is aimed at analyzing, understanding and evaluating people's own interests, knowledge, ideals, thoughts and values. With the help of self-awareness, the person's attitude to what he is is realized.
Self-awareness is closely connected withreflexion, that is, with the principle of thinking, through which a person analyzes and realizes his own forms of activity. Reflection plays the role of a function of consciousness that as if directs this part of the psyche to itself, to reflect on the mental, emotional and other inner state. In this case, the subject makes himself as a thinking and feeling being, the object of cognitive activity. This characteristic way of life for man allows him to find his place in the world.
The functions of consciousness in philosophy in recent timesare inherent in the problem of the unconscious. The level of existence of the latter for today is recognized by the entire academic community. It is a collection of such psychic phenomena and states that lie beyond the reasonable. The difficulty of analyzing this phenomenon is that some phenomena of this kind are born at the level of the unconscious, and then pass to the conscious level, influencing it, and some - on the contrary.
The fruits of this influence are different. On the one hand, the existence of the unconscious reduces the burden on the meaningful aspect of the psyche, and on the other hand, it takes some states out of the control of the mind. Scientists-philosophers and psychologists never came to a common opinion about what is the ratio of the conscious and the unconscious in the human psyche, and how independent they are relative to each other they are.