Baking soda: chemical formula. The chemical formula of baking soda and its application
Perhaps, every home kitchen has soda -a nondescript box with a powdery substance. Mistresses use it as a culinary additive for baking. However, the scope of its application is so wide that the substance can be called with universal confidence a universal assistant of man. But what is soda? In what ways does it exist and how is it used in everyday life?
Names of soda
Before proceeding to the chemical properties of soda,it is worth mentioning that its name - "soda", the substance received from the name of the plant hodgepodge of soda, the ash of which was the source of soda extraction.
In chemistry, soda is the general name for sodium salts of carbonic acid:
- Na2CO3(sodium carbonate) - the chemical formula of soda ash;
- Na2CO3· 10H2O - economic soda;
- NaHCO3- baking soda. This is the chemical formula of baking soda;
- Na2CO3· H2O or Na2CO3· 7H2O is the chemical formula of crystalline soda.
In everyday life, as well as in the chemical industry, there are several trivial names of the substance:
- baking soda;
- drinking soda;
- sodium bicarbonate;
- additive Е500;
- sodium decahydrate.
The empirical formula
The chemical formula of baking soda is NaHCO3. This is an acidic salt of carbonic acid. If we add the atomic weights of all its constituent elements, we obtain an atomic mass of soda equal to 84 a. e.
The way it is formed is very simple. The chemical formula of soda food is a complex interaction of sodium hydroxide with carbonic acid:
NaOH + H2CO3= NaHCO3+ H2O.
In the field of chemistry, sodium bicarbonate is acomplex of sodium cation and bicarbonate anion. When these elements are introduced into the body, they normalize the acid-base balance, neutralizing the excess of acids contained in the liquid medium.
The chemical formula of soda ash is Na2CO3. Calcined soda is a white, loose substance that can be presented in the form of granules (A) or powder (B).
This type of soda has a number of features that distinguish soda ash from food.
- pH of the medium. Both food and soda ash are alkali, but the first is weak, with pH = 8, and the second - strong, with pH = 11. The chemical formula of technical soda is also indicative of the nature of the medium.
- Application area. Baking soda is used in the food industry, cosmetology and medicine. Calcined is used as an effective cleaning agent.
In a household with the help of soda ash, you can:
- do washing by using it as a laundry detergent;
- wash floors, but for laminate and parquet this tool will not work, because it can spoil the coating;
- eliminate pipe blockages;
- to clean products from faience.
When using soda ash, you need to be extremely careful, because the substance is very toxic, belonging to the third group of hazardous substances.
Physical properties of baking soda
Sodium bicarbonate is a white powdery substance. This is a complex of elements of sodium, hydrogen, carbon and oxygen.
The density of the powder is 2.16 g / cm3.
With temperature values of +50about-60aboutC the substance begins to melt.
Sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda, is presented in the form of a milky powder. It is very soluble in water. Does not burn. The chemical formula of drinking soda is the same as that of food.
Baking soda is a substance that completely dissolves in water, resulting in a soda solution. It is used for hygiene purposes as a means of rinsing the oral cavity.
The chemical formula of the soda solution is as follows:
NaHCO3+ H2O = H2CO3+ NaOH.
The aqueous solution of soda is endowed with a slightly alkaline character.
Sodium bicarbonate in aqueous solution dissociates to form the following ions:
Na2CO3↔ 2Na++ CO32-
Properties of soda as alkali
As has been repeatedly mentioned, bicarbonatesodium is an alkaline substance. This fact affects the use of soda as a means to neutralize the increased acidity of the body, in particular the stomach. Elements that form the substance have a safe effect.
Soda increases the efficiency of the kidneys, becauseThe excreted urine has an alkaline medium. In addition, it retains the required amount of glutamine AK in the body, which prevents the appearance of stone formations in the kidneys.
Alkaline environment helps the better absorption of certain vitamins of group B: B1, B4, B5, B6 and B12.
When using soda for good assimilation of hercombine with hot milk. This contributes to the fact that in the small intestine parts of the soda interacts with the amino acids of milk, resulting in the appearance of sodium salts of amino acids, which have an alkaline character. These amino acids are much better than soda, they penetrate the bloodstream, thereby increasing the alkaline stores of the body.
The chemical formula of caustic soda is NaOH. Structural formula: Na - O - H.
Molecular weight of the substance is made up of atomic weights, forming its components Na, O and H. It is equal to 40.
Caustic is very soluble in water.
In the industry in relation to this type of soda the following names are used:
- sodium hydroxide;
- sodium hydroxide;
- hydrate of sodium oxide.
When working with caustic soda, it is necessary to use protective clothing elements, because when it comes into contact with the skin, it leaves severe burns.
Soda in combination with vinegar
The chemical formula of vinegar and soda is a quenching reaction, in which water, carbon dioxide and acetic acid are formed.
This chemical "experience" is accompanied by a characteristic hiss, which indicates the start of the "burning" of soda.
Such a reaction is carried out in the culinary case, whenintend to knead the dough for baking. Vinegar for this is taken at a concentration of 9%. An analogue of acid can be lemon juice, apple or wine vinegar.
So why conduct this reaction in the preparation of the test? The thing is that the carbon dioxide produced by the decomposition of soda gives the test a splendor.
Preparation of a substance
Once soda was extracted from the ash of the plantsodic. At present, the basis for obtaining this substance is natural sodium sulfate. The reaction of the preparation is as follows, where the chemical formula of soda is displayed on the right:
Na2SO4+ 3C + 2O2= 2Na2CO3+ CO2+ 2SO2;
CaCO3+ C + Na2SO4= Na2CO3+ 4CO + CaS.
Application of baking soda
Soda is very popular in everyday life, and not only as a culinary component. But let us consider in more detail the cases where soda is used.
- For starters, it's worth mentioning once again that soda -food component in the culinary business. Its use is not accidental: when heated, the substance is capable of releasing carbon dioxide vapor, which, in turn, gives the test airiness. In this case, soda acts as a baking powder. But if you buy a bag with a pastry baking opener in the store, then on the packaging in the composition line you can detect the presence of soda, which is designated as a food supplement E500.
- Use baking soda and for the production of carbonated drinks.
- Very often, soda is used in the so-called"Folk" medicine. In this area, soda is a panacea for almost any ailments, for example, its effectiveness is proven with heartburn, cough, with sore throat, stomach, at elevated temperature.
- Good brewing soda and as a cleansermeans. You can use it to clean plumbing, aluminum pots, dishes, carpets, silver and for washing clothes. The substance has a good disinfectant and antifungal agent.
- Many women use soda and in cosmeticand for hygienic purposes. It can be used as a scrub for the skin. The product will perfectly relieve the rough skin of the feet if used for foot baths. With her help, you can get rid of the smell of sweat in both the underarms and shoes.
Will help soda and teeth whitening. This is an inexpensive but effective way. Soda powder is mixed with toothpaste or water and soft teeth cleanings.
Caustic soda: application
Use of this type of soda should be accompanied by certain security measures, since caustic soda is a strong alkali that can "eat away" many types of surfaces.
Why can a caustic remedy in a domestic setting be useful?
- Caustic perfectly copes with variouscontamination on the dishes. But you should refrain from using this tool for products made of aluminum and Teflon. But for the rest of the pots, pans or baking - please. Nagar, scum, aged layers of fat - with all this easily cope caustic.
- Caustic soda can solve the problem of clogged pipes. It is necessary simply to fill the granular substance in the pipe and leave it for a while, then rinse with running water.
Corrosive soda, also caustic soda, is widely applicable at the industrial level in various fields of production.
- In construction. Here the substance is used for the manufacture of some types of building materials, and also serves as an additional component that strengthens the fundamental basis of structures.
- In the food industry. Caustic soda is also applicable in the manufacture of food products. Of course, in this case it is used in weak concentration. With her participation, cocoa powder and chocolate, ice cream, caramel, bread are baked, it is used as an additive Е524.
- Textile industry. In this area, caustic soda is useful in bleaching fabrics and for regenerating rubber products.
- Chemical production: caustic soda is used as an acid neutralizer, a means for purifying oil and products based on it. The production of technical oils also can not do without the addition of caustic soda. In addition, caustic soda is a good catalyst for some chemical reactions.
- Applied caustic soda and for soap making in the production of various types of soaps, shampoos and gels.
Calcined soda: use
Calcined soda is also called linen. Special means of this tool used in the Soviet Union, therefore, you can say: linen soda is time-tested.
The tool is used in the following situations:
- During the washing of things.
- When cleaning the surfaces of tiles, ceramics, faience.
- When removing the blockage in the pipes.
- For the elimination of scale in the drums of washing machines, as well as on the dishes.
- For the destruction of harmful insects in the kitchen gardens.
From the above, the conclusion suggests itself: soda is a universal tool used in most areas of both domestic and industrial life.
The positive quality of the substance is that it can be purchased for a penny.