10 mental abnormalities that change the perception of the world
Your brain is a complex organ that continuously controls all the vital processes of the body. Your ability to walk, talk, and just be a man depends on it. Nevertheless, we all know that not always and not at all with this body is all right. In reality, 18.2% of us suffer from some kind of mental disorder in one form or another.
You have probably heard about conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. But you could hardly have heard of the disorders described below, which can change the way you perceive the world - to the extent that even your own relatives will be considered imposters.
Everyone knows about such a relatively common disease as color blindness (color blindness), so you can easily imagine the condition of a person who does not distinguish between colors. But can you imagine what the inability to see movement means?
This disease is called akinetopsy.One of the few diseased patients is a woman, who is called the “LM patient”. Her disease was discovered in 1978, when she was 43 years old. For her, the world looks as if she is watching a succession of frames. "Patient LM" was first hospitalized with complaints of severe headaches. She suffered a stroke that caused damage to the V5 (MT) area of the extrastriatum. It is believed that this area of the brain is responsible for the perception of movement. Fortunately, she retained all other visual abilities, such as depth and color perception.
9. Inability to feel your body in space
At age 19, Jan Waterman suffered an almost complete loss of his sense of touch and proprioception (the ability to sense his body in space). With the loss of proprioception, a person practically loses the ability to make meaningful movements, for example, to walk.
Waterman was told that he probably will never be able to walk again and will be confined to a wheelchair for the rest of his life. However, Waterman showed perseverance. He learned to control the position of his body with the help of his eyes and thus make meaningful movements.
After a lot of training, he regained his ability to act with his hands, but he still calls his walking a “controlled fall”.
Prosopagnosis has become widely known thanks to Brad Pitt. In 2013, in an interview with Esquire magazine, he said that he assumes that he has this disease and must be examined.
Prosopagnosia is the loss of the ability to recognize people's faces. However, you can still identify people by other characteristics, such as an individual smell or style of dress.
Until recently, this disease was considered rare and was observed only in individuals with neurological damage, for example, after a stroke or head injury. However, this disease was later found in people without such damage. Now it is estimated that about 1 person out of 50 is susceptible to pro-pagi.
There is a widespread belief that prozopagnosia is associated with autism, but it is not. Although people with autism sometimes have problems with facial recognition, these two deviations are not related to each other.
7. Capgra's Syndrome
Imagine that someone close to you in an accident suffered a head injury, but fortunately, he managed to survive.Then this person regains consciousness ... and no longer believes that you are you. He believes that you have been replaced by a double. This condition is known as Capgra's Syndrome, and its occurrence is believed to be possible due to damage to the superior temporal sulcus - this is the area of the brain that is responsible for the emotional response to familiar faces.
Despite the fact that the patient is still able to recognize faces, he does not feel any feelings and therefore believes that the person is an impostor. The same applies to the victim's pets. He believes that one of the deceivers living next to him also changed his dog.
Even more unexpected is the fact that the victims themselves are often aware of the stupidity of their assumptions. But since people are dominated by visual perception, it is difficult for them to ignore the feeling that all their friends were replaced by strangers.
6. Urbach-Vite disease
Do you think it would be nice to become fearless? This is exactly what happened with a CM patient suffering from Urbach-Vite disease. This disease occurs when both the amygdala of the brain are damaged (one in each hemisphere), which, according to generally accepted opinion, are responsible for creating a sense of fear.
To test the CM's response to different situations, psychiatrists brought the woman to the Haunted House at the Waverly Hills Sanatorium in Louisville, Kentucky. While traveling around the house, SM was not afraid at all, but when she met with “ghosts” she only smiled.
Since not all people are afraid of ghosts, after this experiment, the psychiatrists took the CM to the pet store (she used to say that she hates snakes). There she calmly stroked the snakes and took them in her arms. According to psychiatrists, among her emotions were only interest and curiosity, but not fear.
5. Kluver's syndrome - Buci
At the age of 19, Kevin (perhaps not his real name) was a law-abiding citizen who began to experience bouts of deja vu 20 times a day. Other symptoms included acute chest pain, shortness of breath, and even musical hallucinations.
All this was the result of epilepsy, which, in turn, was caused by bilateral lesion of the medial structures of the temporal lobes of the brain. At age 39, Kevin underwent surgery to remove the part of his brain that caused the problems.
About a month after the surgery, he began to have serious behavioral changes.He had an insatiable appetite, hypersexuality, eventually he began to download and view child porn.
Kevin was diagnosed with Kluwer syndrome - Buci. After his arrest, the defense claimed that because of his condition, Kevin could not control his actions. As a result, he received a milder sentence.
4. Guillain-Barre syndrome
In patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome, the body's immune system infects its own peripheral nervous system, which is responsible for transmitting information from the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) to the rest of the body. Guillain-Barre syndrome leads to weakness, numbness and tingling all over the body. Ultimately, it can end in paralysis.
Although the exact cause of its occurrence is still unknown, it is believed that this disorder may be due to an infection of the gastrointestinal tract or respiratory tract. Fortunately, this disease affects only 1 person out of 100,000, so there is no serious cause for concern.
3. Rett syndrome
Rett syndrome is observed in children, and almost exclusively in girls.Babies with this syndrome, as a rule, develop up to six months without any deviations. Then they gradually lose the ability to control their motor muscles, coordinate movements and communicate.
Kids with Rett syndrome often have smaller heads due to slower brain growth. As they grow older, with the growth of other parts of the body, this slow growth becomes more and more noticeable.
Ways to treat the syndrome has not yet been found. Modern methods are aimed at improving the skills of movement and communication of the child, as well as to support his family.
2. Doll Head Syndrome
Syndrome doll head is most common in children aged about three years. At the same time, they begin to talk their heads up and down or side to side. If the child tries, he can stop this wiggle. In addition, it disappears when children sleep. But if the child is excited or not trying to concentrate, the swaying increases.
Since most of the time children are excited, the disease can be a problem, but fortunately, it is quite easily treated. The disease causes a cyst in the brain, and after its removal, the syndrome either disappears or its symptoms are significantly reduced.
In people with synesthesia, irritation of one sense organ, such as hearing or smelling, simultaneously causes a response in another sensory organ. In this case, all people react to each of the stimuli in different ways. There are different types of synesthesia.
In the case of grapheme-color synesthesia, a person develops color or texture associations for letters, numbers, and individual words. With gustatory synesthesia, certain sounds can cause a certain taste in the mouth. Usually there are only two feelings connected, but in rare cases there may be three or more. In fact, the word “synesthesia” itself is translated from Greek as “united perception”.
In women, this condition occurs three times more often than in men. In addition, people with synesthesia often turn out to be left-handed or have a family member with the same symptoms. According to various estimates, the number of people with synesthesia varies from 1 out of 200 to 1 out of 100,000.
Scientists do not know exactly which areas of the brain are associated with synesthesia, but some of them believe that this condition is caused by “overlapping” areas of the brain. Others indicate that the reason may lie in his limbic system.